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Age dependence of natural uranium and thorium concentrations in bone.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165657
Source
Health Phys. 2007 Feb;92(2):119-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2007
Author
Dominic Larivière
Ana Paula Packer
Leonora Marro
Chunsheng Li
Jing Chen
R Jack Cornett
Author Affiliation
Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Address Locator 6302D1, Ottawa, ON, Canada, K1A. dominic_lariviere@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Health Phys. 2007 Feb;92(2):119-26
Date
Feb-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aging
Background Radiation
Body Burden
Bone and Bones - chemistry
Canada
Humans
Radiation Dosage
Radiometry - methods
Relative Biological Effectiveness
Thorium - analysis
Uranium - analysis
Abstract
The age dependence of the natural concentration of uranium and thorium in the skeleton was investigated using human vertebrae bone collected from two Canadian locations (Winnipeg, Manitoba, and Regina, Saskatchewan). The concentration of both radioelements in digested ashed bone samples was determined using sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The geometric means for uranium level in bones showed a significant statistical difference between the two locations studied. Similarly for thorium, a statistical difference was observed, although this difference was considered marginal. The thorium concentration differed only marginally with respect to age group, indicating that its behavior in the body could be age-independent. Conversely, the uranium level in bones was found to change for the age groups tested, an indication of age-specific deposition. The age profile for uranium was comparable to the calcium turn-over rate, indicating that uranium deposition is probably, in part, dictated by this metabolic process, showing the role of present uptake into the uranium concentration in bones for populations exposed to significant uranium intake.
PubMed ID
17220713 View in PubMed
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An aerosol particle containing enriched uranium encountered in the remote upper troposphere.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289883
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2018 Apr; 184-185:95-100
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-2018
Author
D M Murphy
K D Froyd
E Apel
D Blake
N Blake
N Evangeliou
R S Hornbrook
J Peischl
E Ray
T B Ryerson
C Thompson
A Stohl
Author Affiliation
NOAA ESRL Chemical Sciences Division, Boulder, CO, USA. Electronic address: daniel.m.murphy@noaa.gov.
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2018 Apr; 184-185:95-100
Date
Apr-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Aerosols - analysis
Air Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis
Alaska
Atmosphere - chemistry
Radiation monitoring
Uranium - analysis
Abstract
We describe a submicron aerosol particle sampled at an altitude of 7?km near the Aleutian Islands that contained a small percentage of enriched uranium oxide. 235U was 3.1?±?0.5% of 238U. During twenty years of aircraft sampling of millions of particles in the global atmosphere, we have rarely encountered a particle with a similarly high content of 238U and never a particle with enriched 235U. The bulk of the particle consisted of material consistent with combustion of heavy fuel oil. Analysis of wind trajectories and particle dispersion model results show that the particle could have originated from a variety of areas across Asia. The source of such a particle is unclear, and the particle is described here in case it indicates a novel source where enriched uranium was dispersed.
PubMed ID
29407642 View in PubMed
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An ecological study of cancer incidence in Port Hope, Ontario from 1992 to 2007.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117206
Source
J Radiol Prot. 2013 Mar;33(1):227-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2013
Author
Jing Chen
Deborah Moir
Rachel Lane
Patsy Thompson
Author Affiliation
Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 2720 Riverside Drive, Ottawa, K1A 0K9, Canada. jing.chen@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
J Radiol Prot. 2013 Mar;33(1):227-42
Date
Mar-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Mining - statistics & numerical data
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Ontario - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Radium - analysis
Risk assessment
Sex Distribution
Socioeconomic Factors
Uranium - analysis
Abstract
A plant processing radium and uranium ores has been operating in the town of Port Hope since 1932. Given the nuclear industry located in the community and ongoing public health concerns, cancer incidence rates in Port Hope were studied for a recent 16 year period (1992-2007) for continued periodic cancer incidence surveillance of the community. The cancer incidence in the local community for all cancers combined was similar to the Ontario population, health regions with similar socio-economic characteristics in Ontario and in Canada, and the Canadian population. No statistically significant differences in childhood cancer, leukaemia or other radiosensitive cancer incidence were observed, with the exception of statistically significant elevated lung cancer incidence among women. However, the statistical significance was reduced or disappeared when the comparison was made to populations with similar socio-economic characteristics. These findings are consistent with previous ecological, case-control and cohort studies conducted in Port Hope, environmental assessments, and epidemiological studies conducted elsewhere on populations living around similar facilities or exposed to similar environmental contaminants. Although the current study covered an extended period of time, the power to detect risk at the sub-regional level of analysis was limited since the Port Hope population is small (16,500). The study nevertheless indicated that large differences in cancer incidence are not occurring in Port Hope compared to other similar communities and the general population.
PubMed ID
23324463 View in PubMed
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Anthropogenic 236U in Danish Seawater: Global Fallout versus Reprocessing Discharge.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287640
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2017 Jun 20;51(12):6867-6876
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-20-2017
Author
Jixin Qiao
Peter Steier
Sven Nielsen
Xiaolin Hou
Per Roos
Robin Golser
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2017 Jun 20;51(12):6867-6876
Date
Jun-20-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Atlantic Ocean
Baltic States
Denmark
Iodine Radioisotopes
North Sea
Oceans and Seas
Seawater
Uranium - analysis
Water pollutants, radioactive
Abstract
This work focuses on the occurrence of 236U in seawater along Danish coasts, which is the sole water-exchange region between the North Sea-Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea. Seawater collected in 2013 and 2014 were analyzed for 236U (as well as 238U and 137Cs). Our results indicate that 236U concentrations in Danish seawater are distributed within a relatively narrow range of (3.6-8.2) × 107 atom/L and, to a certain extent, independent of salinity. 236U/238U atomic ratios in Danish seawater are more than 4 times higher than the estimated global fallout value of 1× 10-9. The levels of 236U/238U atomic ratios obtained are comparable to those reported for the open North Sea and much higher than several other open oceans worldwide. This indicates that besides the global fallout input, the discharges from the two major European nuclear reprocessing plants are dominating sources of 236U in Danish seawater. However, unexpectedly high 236U/238U ratios as well as high 236U concentrations were observed at low-salinity locations of the Baltic Sea. While this feature might be interpreted as a clue for another significant 236U input in the Baltic Sea, it may also be caused by the complexity of water currents or slow turnover rate.
PubMed ID
28505439 View in PubMed
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Assessment of occupational exposure to uranium by indirect methods needs information on natural background variations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165079
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2007;125(1-4):492-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
M. Muikku
T. Heikkinen
M. Puhakainen
T. Rahola
L. Salonen
Author Affiliation
Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FIN-00881 Helsinki, Finland. maarit.muikku@stuk.fi
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2007;125(1-4):492-5
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Algorithms
Background Radiation
Biological Assay - methods
Computer simulation
Finland
Humans
Internationality
Models, Biological
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Radiation Protection - methods
Reproducibility of Results
Sensitivity and specificity
Uranium - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Abstract
Urine monitoring is the preferred method to determine exposure to soluble compounds of uranium in workplaces. The interpretation of uranium contents in workers bioassay samples requires knowledge on uranium excretion and its dependence on intake by diet. Exceptionally high concentrations of natural uranium in private drinking water sources have been measured in the granite areas of Southern Finland. Consequently, high concentrations of natural uranium have been observed in the urine and hair samples of people using water from their own drilled wells. Natural uranium content in urine and hair samples of family members, who use uranium-rich household water, have been analyzed by using ICP-MS. The uranium concentrations both in urine and hair samples of the study subjects were significantly higher than the world-wide average values. In addition, gammaspectrometric methods have been tested for determining uranium in hair samples. This method can be used only for samples with highly elevated uranium concentrations.
PubMed ID
17309870 View in PubMed
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Assessment of oxidative stress and histopathology in juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius) inhabiting lakes downstream of a uranium mill.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature89579
Source
Aquat Toxicol. 2009 May 17;92(4):240-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-17-2009
Author
Kelly Jocelyn M
Janz David M
Author Affiliation
Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5B3.
Source
Aquat Toxicol. 2009 May 17;92(4):240-9
Date
May-17-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Biological Markers - analysis
Esocidae - physiology
Fresh Water - analysis
Gills - drug effects - pathology
Industrial Waste
Kidney - drug effects - pathology
Lipid Peroxidation - drug effects
Liver - drug effects - pathology
Metals, Heavy - analysis
Muscles - chemistry - drug effects
Oxidative Stress - drug effects
Uranium - toxicity
Water Pollutants, Chemical - toxicity
Abstract
Lakes receiving effluent from the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan contain elevated trace metals, some of which are associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells and tissues causing oxidative stress. The potential for oxidative stress was assessed in juvenile (age 1+) northern pike (Esox lucius) collected from two exposure (high and low) and one reference lake near the Key Lake operation. The concentrations of total, reduced and oxidized glutathione and the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione in liver and kidney did not differ significantly among pike collected from exposure and reference lakes, with the exception of low exposure pike kidney that had significantly greater oxidized glutathione and ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione. The concentrations of by-products of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenal) were significantly greater in kidney of pike collected from the reference lake compared to both exposure lakes. The activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase in liver was greater in pike collected from the high exposure lake compared to the reference lake. Histopathological evaluations revealed greater pathology in reference lake pike as indicated by a greater number of pyknotic and fragmented nuclei and dilated tubules as well as a thickening of Bowman's capsule in kidney, and as a thickening of the primary filament epithelial padding in gills. In liver, hepatocyte morphology, including transsectional area and degree of vacuolation, differed among lakes without any clear signs of pathology. Trace metal analyses of muscle showed that eight elements (arsenic, cobalt, copper, iron, molybdenum, selenium, thallium, and uranium) were significantly elevated in pike collected from both exposure lakes compared to reference. These results provide only limited evidence of oxidative stress in exposure pike tissues and no evidence of histopathology despite indications that trace metals, most notably arsenic and selenium, were bioaccumulating in tissue.
PubMed ID
19304330 View in PubMed
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Biomedical surveillance: rights conflict with rights.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature236478
Source
J Occup Med. 1986 Oct;28(10):958-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1986
Author
G. Atherley
N. Johnston
M. Tennassee
Source
J Occup Med. 1986 Oct;28(10):958-65
Date
Oct-1986
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aviation
Biomedical research
Canada
Civil Rights - legislation & jurisprudence
Disclosure
Ethics
Government Regulation
Humans
Lead
Mandatory Programs
Mass Screening - legislation & jurisprudence
Mining
Monitoring, Physiologic
Occupational Diseases - prevention & control
Occupational Health Services - legislation & jurisprudence
Research Subjects
Risk assessment
Uranium
Abstract
Medical screening and biomedical monitoring violate individual rights. Such conflicts of right with right are acted upon synergistically by uncertainty which, in some important respects, increases rather than decreases as a result of research. Issues of rightness and wrongness, ethical issues, arise because the human beings who are subjects of medical screening and biological monitoring often have little or no option whether to be subjected to them. We identify issues of rightness and wrongness of biomedical surveillance for various purposes of occupational health and safety. We distinguish between social validity and scientific validity. We observe that principles are well established for scientific validity, but not for social validity. We support guidelines as a way forward.
PubMed ID
3772552 View in PubMed
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Body Burden Assay Services of the Radiation Protection Division.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature110407
Source
Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1968 Dec;58(12):2261-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1968
Author
P M Bird
Source
Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1968 Dec;58(12):2261-6
Date
Dec-1968
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Carbon Isotopes - urine
Humans
Public Health
Radiation monitoring
Radiation Protection
Radioisotopes - urine
Radiometry
Radium - urine
Thorium - urine
Tritium - urine
Uranium - urine
Notes
Cites: Can Med Assoc J. 1964 May 9;90:1114-2014143681
PubMed ID
5749960 View in PubMed
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Calibration system for measuring the radon flux density.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271780
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2015 Jun;164(4):582-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2015
Author
A. Onishchenko
M. Zhukovsky
V. Bastrikov
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2015 Jun;164(4):582-6
Date
Jun-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adsorption
Algorithms
Calibration
Charcoal
Diffusion
Equipment Design
Mining
Radiation Exposure
Radiation Monitoring - instrumentation - methods
Radon - analysis
Russia
Soil Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis
Uranium
Abstract
The measurement of radon flux from soil surface is the useful tool for the assessment of radon-prone areas and monitoring of radon releases from uranium mining and milling residues. The accumulation chambers with hollow headspace and chambers with activated charcoal are the most used devices for these purposes. Systematic errors of the measurements strongly depend on the geometry of the chamber and diffusion coefficient of the radon in soil. The calibration system for the attestation of devices for radon flux measurements was constructed. The calibration measurements of accumulation chambers and chambers with activated charcoal were conducted. The good agreement between the results of 2D modelling of radon flux and measurements results was observed. It was demonstrated that reliable measurements of radon flux can be obtained by chambers with activated charcoal (equivalent volume ~75 l) or by accumulation chambers with hollow headspace of ~7-10 l and volume/surface ratio (height) of >15 cm.
PubMed ID
25977351 View in PubMed
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112 records – page 1 of 12.