To characterize the etiology, course, and prognosis in children admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) for status epilepticus.
Retrospective, descriptive study.
Pediatric ICU in a university hospital.
One hundred forty-seven children admitted with status epilepticus.
Status epilepticus was defined as a prolonged (> 30 mins) or repeated tonic or tonic-clonic seizure with a persistent altered state of consciousness. Over 10 yrs, 147 children 0 to 16 yrs of age (median 1; mean 3.4 +/- 3.9 [SD]) were admitted to a pediatric ICU for, or with, 153 episodes of status epilepticus. Status epilepticus was caused most often by epilepsy (n = 52), atypical febrile convulsions (n = 21), bacterial meningitis (n = 20), encephalitis (n = 20), intoxication (n = 8), or a metabolic disorder (n = 12). Two infants, 1 and 3 months of age, and a patient with intoxication by isoniazid, responded to pyridoxine. Among 114 previously normal children, 34 patients displayed a new neurologic problem on discharge from the ICU, among whom, 68% (23/34) still had some neurologic abnormality 1 yr after the episode of status epilepticus. Nine patients died during their ICU stay, mostly from underlying disease rather than from the status epilepticus itself. A normal neurologic status before status epilepticus and age
To evaluate adverse reactions of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Statens Serum Institut (SSI) (Danish strain 1331) used as intervention in a randomized clinical trial.
A randomized clinical multicenter trial, The Danish Calmette Study, randomizing newborns to BCG or no intervention. Follow-up until 13 months of age.
Pediatric and maternity wards at three Danish university hospitals.
All women planning to give birth at the three study sites (n=16,521) during the recruitment period were invited to participate in the study. Four thousand one hundred and eighty four families consented to participate and 4262 children, gestational age 32 weeks and above, were randomized: 2129 to BCG vaccine and 2133 to no vaccine. None of the participants withdrew because of adverse reactions.
Trial-registered adverse reactions after BCG vaccination at birth. Follow-up at 3 and 13 months by telephone interviews and clinical examinations.
Among the 2118 BCG-vaccinated children we registered no cases of severe unexpected adverse reaction related to BCG vaccination and no cases of disseminated BCG disease. Two cases of regional lymphadenitis were hospitalized and thus classified as serious adverse reactions related to BCG. The most severe adverse reactions were 10 cases of suppurative lymphadenitis. This was nearly a fivefold increase compared to what was expected based on the summary of product characteristics of the vaccine. All cases were treated conservatively and recovered. Six of 10 (60%) families of children experiencing suppurative lymphadenitis compared to 117/2071 (6%) of those with no lymphadenitis indicated that the vaccine had more adverse effects than expected (p-value
AIM: To assess the agreement between Cochrane Neonatal Group reviews and clinical guidelines of a University Neonatology Department, to evaluate the reasons for potential disagreements and to ascertain whether Cochrane reviews were considered for the guidelines development. METHODS: The recommendations in the reviews and guidelines were compared and classified as being in 'agreement', 'partial agreement' or 'disagreement'. The guideline authors were interviewed for reasons about disagreement and whether Cochrane reviews were considered during the guideline development. RESULTS: Agreement between reviews and guidelines was found for 133 interventions (77%), partial agreement for 31 interventions (18%) and disagreement for nine interventions (5%). Six interventions were recommended in the guidelines, but not in the reviews. Three interventions were recommended in the reviews, but not in the guidelines. Use of consensus statements, evidence on surrogate markers, observational studies, basic immunology and pathophysiological knowledge, expert opinion, economical constraints, reservations about the external validity and unawareness of reviews were reasons for disagreement. Cochrane reviews were rarely (22%) used during the guideline development. CONCLUSION: We found agreement between more than three quarters of Cochrane reviews and neonatal guidelines. However, few important disagreements occurred. Reviews were only used for guideline development in about a fifth of cases.
We conducted a retrospective analysis of perinatal mortality at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 1999-2003 in order to categorise/classify perinatal deaths as well as to identify key factors in perinatal care that could be improved. Data were retrieved from the MNH obstetric database and causes of early neonatal deaths were traced from the neonatal ward register. The study includes all foetuses weighing =500g. A modified Nordic-Baltic classification was used for classification of perinatal deaths. Over a 5-year period there were 77,815 babies born with a perinatal mortality rate of 124 per 1000 births, 78% of which was labour related stillbirth. The PMR was 913/1000 for singleton births and 723/1000 for multiple births for babies weighing less than 1500 grams and 65/1000 for singleton births and 116/1000 for multiple births for babies weighing 2500 grams or more. Babies weighing less than 1500 grams contributed 26% of PMR, whereas 41% occurred in babies weighing 2500 grams or more. The majority (79%) of neonatal deaths had Apgar score
The Scandinavian guidelines for management of minimal, mild and moderate head injuries were developed to provide safe and cost effective assessment of head injured patients. In a previous study conducted one year after publication and implementation of the guidelines (2003), we showed low compliance, involving over-triage with computed tomography (CT) and hospital admissions. The aim of the present study was to investigate guideline compliance after an educational intervention.
We evaluated guideline compliance in the management of head injured patients referred to the University Hospital of Stavanger, Norway. The findings from the previous study in 2003 were communicated to the hospitals physicians, and a feed-back loop training program for guideline implementation was conducted. All patients managed during the months January through June in the years 2005, 2007 and 2009 were then identified with an electronic search in the hospitals patient administrative database, and the patient files were reviewed. Patients were classified according to the Head Injury Severity Scale, and the management was classified as compliant or not with the guideline.
The 1 180 patients were 759 (64%) males and 421 (36%) females with a mean age of 31.5 (range 0-97) years. Over all, 738 (63%) patients were managed in accordance with the guidelines and 442 (37%) were not. Compliance was not significantly different between minimal (56%) and mild (59%) injuries, while most moderate (93%) injuries were managed in accordance with the guidelines (p
The purpose of the study was to assess the incidence and type of toxic exposures presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) at Landspitali University Hospital in Iceland over one year and compare the results to another study performed eleven years before.
The study was prospective and included all visits due to acute poisoning to the ED between January 1, and December 31, 2012.
A total of 977 toxic exposures were documented. Females were 554 (57%) and males 423 (43%). The age range was from 2 months to 96 years old. More than half of the patients were under 30 years old. The majority of exposures occurred in private homes and ingestion was the most common route of exposure. Deliberate poisonings accounted for 66% of all the poisonings and 76% had drugs and/or alcohol as their main cause. Exposures to chemicals other than drugs were usually unintentional and 31% of them were occupational exposures. 80% of patients received treatment and were discharged from the ED, 20% were admitted to other departments, thereof 21% to ICU. Two patients died (0.2%).
A slight but statistically unsignificant increase in incidence was observed. Females outnumbered males. Self-poisonings by ingestion of drugs and/or alcohol accounted for the majority of cases. The age range was wide, but the incidence was higher with young people. Mortality was low. Key words: toxicology, acute poisoning, epidemiology, self-poisoning. Correspondence: Gudborg Audur Gudjonsdottir, firstname.lastname@example.org.
To assess the ability of an Adjusted Clinical Group (ACG)-based morbidity measure to assess the overall health service needs of populations. Data Sources/Study Setting. Three population-based secondary data sources: registration and health service utilization data from fiscal year 1995-1996; mortality data from vital statistics reports from 1996-1999; and Canadian census data. The study included all continuously enrolled residents in the universal health care plan in Manitoba.
Using 60 small geographic areas as the units of analysis, we compared a population-based "ACG morbidity index," derived from individual ACG assignments in fiscal year 1995-1996, with the standardized mortality ratio (ages
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The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and cancer survival has been studied extensively in adults. However, little is known about this relationship in the pediatric population, specifically in jurisdictions with universal health care insurance programs. Our aim was to determine whether lower SES is associated with poorer survival in pediatric Hodgkin (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients in Ontario.
All incident cases of HL and NHL in children between 0 and 14 years old diagnosed in Ontario between January 1st, 1985 and December 31st, 2006 were identified through the Pediatric Oncology Group of Ontario Networked Information System. Neighborhood income quintile and material deprivation quintile at diagnosis were used as proxies for SES. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to assess the association between SES and the risk of event-free or overall survival.
A total of 692 patients were included in the analysis: 302 HL and 390 NHL. SES was not associated with survival (overall or event-free) among HL and NHL patients (P > 0.05 for all four comparisons, i.e., HL/NHL, EFS/OS) after adjustment for age, sex, period of diagnosis, and disease stage. There were no differences in the distribution of disease stage across SES strata at the time of diagnosis. Similarly, the distribution of deaths among long-term survivors (survived =5 years from diagnosis) did not differ across SES strata (P > 0.05).
SES was not associated with risk of death among pediatric HL and NHL patients in Ontario. This was consistent through the cancer trajectory, including diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship.
To examine neighbourhood income differences in deaths amenable to medical care and public health over a 25-year period after the establishment of universal insurance for doctors and hospital services in Canada.
Data for census metropolitan areas were obtained from the Canadian Mortality Database and population censuses for the years 1971, 1986, 1991 and 1996. Deaths amenable to medical care, amenable to public health, from ischaemic heart disease and from other causes were considered. Data on deaths were grouped into neighbourhood income quintiles on the basis of the census tract percentage of population below Canada's low-income cut-offs.
From 1971 to 1996, differences between the richest and poorest quintiles in age-standardised expected years of life lost amenable to medical care decreased 60% (p