Previous research updated the mortality experience of North American synthetic rubber industry workers during the period 1944-1998, determined if leukemia and other cancers were associated with several employment factors and carried out Poisson regression analysis to examine exposure-response associations between estimated exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD) or other chemicals and cancer. The present study used Cox regression procedures to examine further the exposure-response relationship between several unlagged and lagged, continuous, time-dependent BD exposure indices (BD parts per million (ppm)-years, the total number of exposures to BD concentrations >100 ppm ("peaks") and average intensity of BD) and leukemia, lymphoid neoplasms and myeloid neoplasms. All three BD exposure indices were associated positively with leukemia. Using continuous, untransformed BD ppm-years the regression coefficient (beta) from an analysis that controlled only for age was 2.9 x 10(-4) (p
The perioperative and long-term risks for living kidney donors are of concern. We have studied donors at the University of Minnesota 20 years or more (mean 23.7) after donation by comparing renal function, blood pressure, and proteinuria in donors with siblings. In 57 donors (mean age 61 [SE 1]), mean serum creatinine is 1.1 (0.01) mg/dl, blood urea nitrogen 17 (0.5) mg/dl, creatinine clearance 82 (2) ml/min, and blood pressure 134 (2)/80 (1) mm Hg. 32% of the donors are taking antihypertensive drugs and 23% have proteinuria. The 65 siblings (mean age 58 [1.3]) do not significantly differ from the donors in any of these variables: 1.1 (0.03) mg/dl, 17 (1.2) mg/dl, 89 (3.3) ml/min, and 130 (3)/80 (1.5) mm Hg, respectively. 44% of the siblings are taking antihypertensives and 22% have proteinuria. To assess perioperative mortality, we surveyed all members of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons about donor mortality at their institutions. We documented 17 perioperative deaths in the USA and Canada after living donation, and estimate mortality to be 0.03%. We conclude that perioperative mortality in the USA and Canada after living-donor nephrectomy is low. In long-term follow-up of our living donors, we found no evidence of progressive renal deterioration or other serious disorders.
Comment In: Lancet. 1992 Nov 28;340(8831):1354-51360068
The objective was to test the hypothesis that a described association between homozygosity for a 50bp deletion in the SOD1 promoter 1684bp upstream of the SOD1 ATG and an increased age of onset in SALS can be replicated in additional SALS and control sample sets from other populations. Our second objective was to examine whether this deletion attenuates expression of the SOD1 gene. Genomic DNA from more than 1200 SALS cases from Ireland, Scotland, Quebec and the USA was genotyped for the 50bp SOD1 promoter deletion. Reporter gene expression analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies were utilized to examine the functional effects of the deletion. The genetic association for homozygosity for the promoter deletion with an increased age of symptom onset was confirmed overall in this further study (p=0.032), although it was only statistically significant in the Irish subset, and remained highly significant in the combined set of all cohorts (p=0.001). Functional studies demonstrated that this polymorphism reduces the activity of the SOD1 promoter by approximately 50%. In addition we revealed that the transcription factor SP1 binds within the 50bp deletion region in vitro and in vivo. Our findings suggest the hypothesis that this deletion reduces expression of the SOD1 gene and that levels of the SOD1 protein may modify the phenotype of SALS within selected populations.
Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.
Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, due to in utero exposures may play a critical role in early programming for childhood and adult illness. Maternal smoking is a major risk factor for multiple adverse health outcomes in children, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear.
We investigated epigenome-wide methylation in cord blood of newborns in relation to maternal smoking during pregnancy.
We examined maternal plasma cotinine (an objective biomarker of smoking) measured during pregnancy in relation to DNA methylation at 473,844 CpG sites (CpGs) in 1,062 newborn cord blood samples from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (450K).
We found differential DNA methylation at epigenome-wide statistical significance (p-value
Influenza poses a continuing public health threat in epidemic and pandemic seasons. The 1951 influenza epidemic (A/H1N1) caused an unusually high death toll in England; in particular, weekly deaths in Liverpool even surpassed those of the 1918 pandemic. We further quantified the death rate of the 1951 epidemic in 3 countries. In England and Canada, we found that excess death rates from pneumonia and influenza and all causes were substantially higher for the 1951 epidemic than for the 1957 and 1968 pandemics (by > or =50%). The age-specific pattern of deaths in 1951 was consistent with that of other interpandemic seasons; no age shift to younger age groups, reminiscent of pandemics, occurred in the death rate. In contrast to England and Canada, the 1951 epidemic was not particularly severe in the United States. Why this epidemic was so severe in some areas but not others remains unknown and highlights major gaps in our understanding of interpandemic influenza.
The North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study (NAPRTCS) is a research effort that was organized and initiated in 1987. The following manuscript is the 1994 NAPRTCS annual report which has summarized data that has been voluntarily contributed by 83 centers. The report includes data on 3,183 patients who have undergone a total of 3,445 renal transplants between 1 January 1987 and 18 February 1994 when the data set was closed. The report also contains data on 1,611 independent courses of dialysis which were initiated between 1 January 1992 and 18 February 1994. This report is meant to update the previous NAPRTCS annual reports as well as demonstrate how the NAPRTCS database has changed clinical practice since its inception. There have been 855 graft failures among the 3,438 transplants. Due to the maturing of the database, chronic rejection now accounts for 34% of graft failures which have occurred over the last year. Graft failure was increased in recipients if the recipients were 6 years did not have catch-up growth post transplant. Overall graft survival has improved markedly since the inception of this study. The dialysis database is just maturing and the data confirm that growth on dialysis continues to be very poor. The 1994 annual report of NAPRTCS extends previous findings of this valuable database. It is gratifying to know that early findings of NAPRTCS have led to changes in therapy which have led to improvement in the care of these very special children.
PROBLEM/CONDITION: In 1969, CDC began abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions, to monitor unintended pregnancy, and to assist efforts to identify and reduce preventable causes of morbidity and mortality associated with abortions. REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: This report summarizes and reviews information reported to CDC regarding legal induced abortions obtained in the United States in 1998. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: For each year since 1969, CDC has compiled abortion data by occurrence. From 1973 to 1997, data were received from or estimated for 52 reporting areas in the United States: 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City. In 1998, CDC compiled abortion data from only 48 reporting areas; Alaska, California, New Hampshire, and Oklahoma did not report. RESULTS: In 1998, 884,273 legal induced abortions were reported to CDC, representing a 2% decrease from the 900,171 legal induced abortions reported by the same 48 reporting areas for 1997. The abortion ratio, defined as the number of abortions per 1,000 live births, was 264, compared with 274 in 1997 (for the same 48 areas); the abortion rate for these 48 areas was 17 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years for both 1997 and 1998. The availability of information about characteristics of women who obtained an abortion in 1998 varied by state and by the number of states reporting each characteristic. The total number of legal induced abortions by state is reported by state of residence and state of occurrence; characteristics of women obtaining abortions in 1998 are reported by state of occurrence. Women undergoing an abortion were likely to be young (i.e., age or = 21 weeks. A total of 24 reporting areas submitted information stating that they performed medical (nonsurgical) procedures (two of these areas categorized medical abortions with "other" procedures), making up