The relevance of health-related behaviors to exclusion from the labor market in early adulthood remains poorly studied in relation to the magnitude of the problem. We explored whether adolescents' accumulated unhealthy behaviors and psychosocial problems are associated with later labor market exclusion, and whether multisite musculoskeletal pain (MMSP) impacts these relations.
We gathered questionnaire data on unhealthy behaviors and psychosocial problems and MMSP among adolescents aged 15 to 16 belonging to the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. The findings were combined with registry data on unemployment, employment and permanent work disability during a five-year follow-up between the ages of 25 and 29 (n?=?6692). In the statistical modeling we used education, family leave and socioeconomic status of childhood family as potential confounders, as well as latent class and logistic regression analyses.
The Externalizing behavior cluster associated with over one year of unemployment (RR 1.64, CI 1.25-2.14) and permanent work disability (OR 2.49, CI 1.07-5.78) in the follow-up among the men. The Sedentary cluster also associated with over one year (RR 1.41, CI 1.13-1.75) and under one year of unemployment (RR 1.25, CI 1.02-1.52) and no employment days (RR 1.93, CI 1.26-2.95) among the men. Obese male participants were at risk of over one year of unemployment (RR 1.50, CI 1.08-2.09) and no employment days (RR 1.93, CI 1.07-3.50). Among the women, the Multiple risk behavior cluster related significantly to over one year of unemployment (RR 1.77, CI 1.37-2.28). MMSP had no influence on the associations.
Unhealthy behavior patterns and psychosocial problems in adolescence have long-term consequences for exclusion from the labor market in early adulthood, especially among men. Simultaneously supporting psychological well-being and healthy behaviors in adolescence may reduce labor market inclusion difficulties in the early phase of working life.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate activity during unemployment and the relationship between such activity and mental health in a sample (n = 213) of unemployed Norwegians. The results indicate that the unemployed are generally more passive than the average population, and that they are considerably less involved in social activities. However, the unemployed do not constitute a homogeneous group in terms of activity level and activity profile. Women were somewhat more active that men, particularly in connection with domestic chores. Young people were more active than the other age groups, particularly in connection with extra-familial activities. Several significant relationships were found between different activity categories and mental health. The more active the unemployed were, the better their mental health. The results are discussed in relation to similar data for the average population, other unemployment research, subjective and objective factors which can be of importance to the activity level and profile of the unemployed, sex role issues, theoretical models developed to explain and understand the effects of unemployment, methodological considerations, and the possible functions of activity for mental health.
The few available studies on early-onset depression and future earnings offer ambiguous findings, and potential sources of heterogeneity are poorly understood. We examined the differences in adult earnings of males and females with and without a history of depressive disorder in adolescence, with specific focuses on (1) future earnings in clinical subtypes of adolescent depression; (2) the growth and distribution of earnings over time within these subgroups and (3) the mediating role of subsequent depressive episodes occurring in early adulthood.
Data were drawn from the Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study, a community-based cohort study initiated in Uppsala, Sweden, in the early 1990s. Comprehensive diagnostic assessments were conducted at age 16-17 and in follow-up interviews 15 years later, while consecutive data on earnings for the years 1996 to 2016 (ages 20-40) were drawn from population-based registries. The current study included participants with a history of persistent depressive disorder (PDD) (n = 175), episodic major depressive disorder (MDD) (n = 82), subthreshold depression (n = 64) or no depression (n = 218) in adolescence. The association of adolescent depression with earnings in adulthood was analysed using generalised estimating equations. Estimates were adjusted for major child and adolescent psychiatric comorbidities and parental socioeconomic status. The indirect (mediated) effect of depression in early adulthood (ages 19-30) on earnings in mid-adulthood (31-40) was estimated in mediation analysis. The study followed the 'STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology' (STROBE) guidelines.
Earnings across early to middle adulthood were lower for participants with a history of a PDD in adolescence than for their non-depressed peers, with an adjusted ratio of mean earnings of 0.85 (0.77-0.95) for females and 0.76 (0.60-0.95) for males. The differences were consistent over time, and more pronounced in the lower percentiles of the earnings distributions. The association was partially mediated by recurrent depression in early adulthood (48% in total; 61% for females, 29% for males). No reduction in earnings was observed among participants with episodic MDD in adolescence, while results for subthreshold depression were inconclusive.
Our findings suggest that future earnings of adolescents with depressive disorders are contingent on the duration and natural long-term course of early-onset depression, emphasising the need for timely and effective interventions to avoid loss of human capital.
This paper examines how the unemployment rate is related to adolescent alcohol use and experience of binge drinking during a time period characterized by big societal changes. The paper uses repeated cross-sectional adolescent survey data from a Swedish region, collected in 1988, 1991, 1995, 1998, 2002 and 2005, and merges this with data on local unemployment rates for the same time periods. Individual level frequency of alcohol use as well as experience of binge drinking is connected to local level unemployment rate to estimate the relationship using multilevel modeling. The model includes municipality effects controlling for time-invariant differences between municipalities as well as year fixed effects controlling for municipality-invariant changes over time in alcohol use. The results show that the unemployment rate is negatively associated with adolescents' alcohol use and the experience of binge drinking. When the unemployment rate increases, more adolescents do not drink at all. Regular drinking (twice per month or more) is, on the other hand, unrelated to the unemployment rate. Examining gender-differences in the relationship, it is shown that the results are driven by behavior in girls, whereas drinking among boys does not show any significant relationship with changes in the unemployment rate.
In 1988 a random sample of 310 unemployed aged 16 to 63 years who had been registered for more than 12 weeks and lived in the four municipalities of Greenland was examined by a doctor and a nurse. Self-reported health and psychometric tests produced higher prevalences of disease than in a reference population of employed persons. On the basis of both clinical examination and the testing, 22% of the unemployed, were judged to be depressed, as against 2% in the reference group. 17% of the unemployed were scored as "morbidly anxious" and 17% as psychosomatically sick, as against 2% and 4% of the references. The health and social services which the group had received were regarded as unsatisfactory, both by the doctor and by the unemployed themselves. A special health maintenance programme is proposed for long-term unemployed.
The purpose of this study was to assess the association between involuntary job loss and alcohol-attributable morbidity and mortality.
Swedish linked employee-employer data were used to identify all establishment closures during 1990-1999, as well as the employees who were laid off and a comparison group. These data were merged with information on alcohol-attributable deaths and hospital admissions from the Causes of Death Register and the National Patient Register. The associations between job loss and alcohol-attributable morbidity and mortality during a follow-up period of 12 years were estimated by propensity score weighting methods.
An excess risk of both alcohol-related hospitalization and mortality was found among both displaced men and women. For women, the wholly alcohol-attributable health problems were mainly limited to alcohol use disorders, whereas men also had an increased risk of hospitalization from poisoning and alcohol-induced liver disease and pancreatitis.
The findings support previous evidence of increased risks of alcohol-related morbidity/mortality following involuntary job loss, although the estimates presented herein are more conservative. In addition, the findings suggest that alcohol-related problems manifest somewhat differently in men and women.
A representative sample of 310 long-term unemployed in Norway was followed for 2 years with clinical examinations and the AUDIT questionnaire. 30% of the men and 8% of the women scored over the cut-off point for an alcohol use disorder. This gives a probable prevalence of 16%. The test predicted return to employment in this sample. The AUDIT answers were also used as a basis for dividing into three groups: 'normal', 'hazardous' and 'harmful'. At 2 year follow-up, 27% had changed group, 32 respondents to the worse and 24 to the better. This 'unstable' group was characterized by weaker social network and more frequent drinking. The AUDIT was judged as a useful instrument both in a routine health examination and as an epidemiological tool.
Social relations have been shown to be protective against ischaemic heart disease (IHD), but little is known about the impact of negative aspects of the social relations on IHD.
During a 6-year follow-up, the authors aimed to assess if negative aspects of social relations were associated with angina pectoris among 4573 middle-aged Danish men and women free of heart disease at baseline in 2000.
Nine per cent experienced onset of symptoms of angina pectoris. A higher degree of excessive demands or worries from the social relations was associated with increased risk of angina after adjustment for age, gender, social class, cohabitation status and depression in a dose-response manner. For example, experiencing excessive demands or worries always/often from different roles in the social relations was associated with an increased risk: partner OR=3.53 (1.68 to 7.43), children OR=2.19 (1.04 to 4.61), other family OR=1.91 (1.24 to 2.96). Except for frequent conflicts with the partner and neighbours, conflicts with the social relations was not a risk factor for angina. The authors found no interaction of negative aspects of social relations with gender, age, social class, cohabitation status or depression in terms of angina.
Excessive demands and serious worries from significant others seem to be important risk factors for development of angina pectoris.
The purpose of this study was to explore the associations of prolonged unemployment, health, and work ability among young workers using data from the 2008-2010 Occupational Health Counselling project in Kuopio, Eastern Finland. The total sample for this study was 190 young unemployed adults. The questionnaire included the Work Ability Index (WAI), the Beck Depression Inventory, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, and the Occupational Health Counselling Survey. Multivariate analyses revealed that men had a higher prevalence of prolonged unemployment than women. Using drugs for purposes other than treatment was associated independently with an increased prevalence of prolonged unemployment. Low WAI scores were associated with a higher prevalence of prolonged unemployment. This study showed that attention should be paid to male workers, those who have poor or moderate work ability and workers who use drugs. Young unemployed workers should be recognized at an early stage. A comprehensive, flexible network of community resources is essential to support young unemployed adults.
Workplace downsizing and closure have been considered natural experiments that strengthen causal inference when assessing the association between unemployment and health. Selection into unemployment plays a lesser role among those exposed to severe workplace downsizing. This study compared mortality for individuals unemployed from stable, downsized, and closed workplaces with a reference group unexposed to unemployment. We examined nationally representative register data of residents of Finland aged 25-63 years in 1990-2009 (n = 275,738). Compared with the control group, the hazard ratio for substance use-related mortality among men unemployed from stable workplaces was 2.43 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.22, 2.67), from downsized workplaces 1.85 (CI: 1.65, 2.08), and from closed workplaces 2.16 (CI: 1.84, 2.53). Among women, the corresponding estimates were 3.01 (CI: 2.42, 3.74), 2.39 (CI: 1.75, 3.27), and 1.47 (CI: 1.09, 1.99). Unemployment from stable workplaces was associated with mortality from psychiatric and self-harm-related conditions. However, mortality due to ischemic heart disease and other somatic diseases decreased for those unemployed following closure. The results indicate that selection mechanisms partially explain the excess mortality among the unemployed. However, substance-use outcomes among men and women, and fatal accidents and violence among men, might be causally associated with unemployment.