This section describes the spectrum and the scale of the nonmalignant diseases that have been found among exposed populations. Adverse effects as a result of Chernobyl irradiation have been found in every group that has been studied. Brain damage has been found in individuals directly exposed--liquidators and those living in the contaminated territories, as well as in their offspring. Premature cataracts; tooth and mouth abnormalities; and blood, lymphatic, heart, lung, gastrointestinal, urologic, bone, and skin diseases afflict and impair people, young and old alike. Endocrine dysfunction, particularly thyroid disease, is far more common than might be expected, with some 1,000 cases of thyroid dysfunction for every case of thyroid cancer, a marked increase after the catastrophe. There are genetic damage and birth defects especially in children of liquidators and in children born in areas with high levels of radioisotope contamination. Immunological abnormalities and increases in viral, bacterial, and parasitic diseases are rife among individuals in the heavily contaminated areas. For more than 20 years, overall morbidity has remained high in those exposed to the irradiation released by Chernobyl. One cannot give credence to the explanation that these numbers are due solely to socioeconomic factors. The negative health consequences of the catastrophe are amply documented in this chapter and concern millions of people.
The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident happened on April 26, 1986. We investigated the cause of the striking increase in frequency of thyroid cancer in children who lived within a 150 km radius of Chernobyl and who were born before and after the accident. No thyroid cancer was seen in 9472 children born in 1987-89, whereas one and 31 thyroid cancers were recorded in 2409 children born April 27, 1986, to Dec 31, 1986, and 9720 born Jan 1, 1983, to April 26, 1986, respectively. Short-lived radioactive fallout caused by the Chernobyl accident probably induced thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl.
Health effects as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant occurred in 1986 are considered in the paper. Wrong prognosis of the health effects with respect to mortality and morbidity among the population exposed to low radiation doses is shown. Proven increase in thyroid cancer cases among people who were children aged from 0 to 18 at the time of the accident is shown. Linear relationship between thyroid cancer cases and dose to thyroid ranged from 0.2 to 4.0 Gy is considered. An additional absolute risk of thyroid cancer in children varies in the range 1.9-2.6 cases per 10(4) person-year Gy. During the fifteen years following the accident no cases of acute and chronic radiation sickness have been revealed because the population living in contaminated areas received low radiation doses. Also, exposures to low radiation doses did not result in excess of malignant tumors among population. In some cases the outcomes of acute radiation sickness were as follows: radiation damages to the skin, cancer cataracts, development of oncopathology.
An analysis was carried out of 222 medical records and autopsies from patients with inflammatory diseases of the large intestine, the immediate causes of death of whom were different disorders. The incidence of hepatitis running an active course correlated with age of patients and came up to 58.8% in the group of subjects 20 to 40 years old. In age group running between 40 to 60 and 60 to 80 years there prevailed colorectal carcinoma (18.3% and 42.5% respectively).
AIM: To study whether Chernobyl accident has implications for acute leukemia (AL) incidence rate in Donetsk region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Records of the Donetsk regional hematological center for new verified cases of AL have been analysed for 1977-1987 and 1989-1994. RESULTS: Four years after the accident AL morbidity was higher than before the accident. After 1991 AL morbidity returned to the preaccident level. CONCLUSION: A rise in AL incidence is attributed to radionuclide contamination after the Chernobyl accident of a region with initially unfriendly environment.
During 1993-1997, 247 cases of childhood acute leukemia (AL) were analyzed among inhabitants of the city of Kiev and Kiev region, excluding the most contaminated areas belonging to the strict control zone. The criteria of an FAB classification supplemented by immunophenotyping data were applied. The AL pattern was shown to be quite typical except for several peculiar features characteristic of this regional group of patients, especially the absence of age peaks in children with acute myelogenous leukemias (AML), increased frequency of the T1 variant in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and higher levels of M4 and M5 variants in AML. A typical variant of M5a-AML with minimal signs of differentiation was found.
Frequency of promoter endothelial NO-synthase gene allelic polymorphism by using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-PCR) was determined in 221 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and in 83 almost healthy subjects. Data obtained indicate that different promoter allelic variant frequency differs significantly in patients with ACS and in control group. Correlation of normal homozygotes (T/T), heterozygotes (T/C) and pathologic homozygotes (C/C) was 48%, 36% and 16% respectively in patients, and in control it was 48%, 46%, 6% (P