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Addressing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in penitentiary hospitals and in the general population of the former Soviet Union.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature69465
Source
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 1999 Jul;3(7):582-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1999
Author
F. Portaels
L. Rigouts
I. Bastian
Author Affiliation
Mycobacteriology Unit, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium. portaels@itg.be
Source
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 1999 Jul;3(7):582-8
Date
Jul-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Communicable Disease Control - methods
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Health status
Hospitals, Special
Humans
Incidence
Male
Prisons - statistics & numerical data
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control
USSR - epidemiology
Abstract
High rates of tuberculosis, including multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), have been reported from the former Soviet Union. Our laboratory has supported operational studies in jails in Baku, Azerbaijan, and Mariinsk, Siberia. Combining the results from these two penal systems, the rates of MDR-TB among 'newly enrolled' and 'non-responding' cases were 24.6% and 92.1%, respectively. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) studies strongly suggest transmission of MDR-TB between prisoners. In Mariinsk, the high rates of MDR-TB have been associated with failure rates of 23%-50% among smear-positive cases receiving fully-supervised standard short-course treatment. There are no coherent guidelines for TB control programmes confronted by high pre-existing levels of MDR-TB but who have only limited laboratory, clinical, pharmaceutical and financial resources. A 'DOTS plus' strategy has been advocated in which an established TB control programme is complemented by facilities to treat MDR-TB patients. However, the exact format of these programmes remains unresolved. Further research is required to describe the natural history of MDR-TB infection, to determine the failure rate of (and the additional resistance induced by) standard short-course treatment when MDR-TB is prevalent, to decide whether standardised or individualised second-line regimens can be employed, and to define the laboratory facilities required by a 'DOTS plus' programme.
PubMed ID
10423220 View in PubMed
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[A glance into the future (the outlook for pediatric oncology)].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature216642
Source
Vopr Onkol. 1995;41(2):71-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
1995

[A mathematical model of the epidemic process in tuberculous infection].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature208489
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1997 May-Jun;(3):40-3
Publication Type
Article
Author
A V Vasil'ev
O V Grashchenkova
B I Vishnevskii
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1997 May-Jun;(3):40-3
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Disease Outbreaks - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Linear Models
Models, Biological
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Prognosis
Russia - epidemiology
Tuberculosis - epidemiology - microbiology
USSR - epidemiology
Abstract
The work was carried out in 1993-1995 with the use of the data on tuberculosis patients in areas of the northwest and north of the Russian Federation, collected on the basis of the statistical report card No. 33. The study included information on the viability and drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The development of the epidemic situation during the period of 1981-1994 was followed. Close correlation between the above-mentioned properties of M. tuberculosis and the main epidemiological data was revealed. The mathematical model of the epidemic process in tuberculosis, permitting the prognostication of the epidemic situation for the nearest year, was developed.
PubMed ID
9304326 View in PubMed
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[An analysis of the epidemic cycle of meningococcal infection in Russia (1969-1993)].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature211506
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1996 Jul-Aug;(4):57-61
Publication Type
Article
Author
A A Demina
Iu V Martynov
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1996 Jul-Aug;(4):57-61
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Child
Disease Outbreaks - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incidence
Meningococcal Infections - epidemiology
Morbidity - trends
Periodicity
Rural Population - statistics & numerical data
Russia - epidemiology
USSR - epidemiology
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
In this work the specific features of the epidemiological rise of morbidity in meningococcal infection in Russia for the period of 25 years are analyzed. Some factors influencing the intensity of the disease, such as etiology, specific features arising from the age of patients, social and territorial factors, are analyzed. Two waves of epidemic have been established in a single epidemic cycle. The first wave of epidemic was caused by meningococci of group A and characterized by the prevalence of city-dwellers among the patients; the second wave was caused by meningococci of groups A and B with the prevalence of the latter, especially during the period of the slump of the wave. The "Asiatic" and "European" types of morbidity were distinguished (in Moscow and St. Petersburg). The analysis of the epidemic cycle of meningococcal infection indicates the expediency of the development of new specific wide-profile preparation for prophylaxis.
PubMed ID
9027178 View in PubMed
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[An epidemiological assessment of the protection against measles by population age groups in the Russian Federation].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature220816
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1993 Jul-Aug;(4):56-62
Publication Type
Article
Author
Iu P Rykushin
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1993 Jul-Aug;(4):56-62
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aging - immunology
Child
Child, Preschool
Humans
Immunization, Secondary
Infant
Measles - epidemiology - immunology
Measles Vaccine - immunology
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
USSR - epidemiology
Abstract
The population of the Russian Federation has been divided into 5 groups according to their immunity to measles; the epidemiological importance of this division for the prognosis of measles morbidity for the next decade has been substantiated. As revealed in this study, children under 6 years and born in 1966-1978 who have received only one immunization are least protected from measles and make up the main socio-epidemiological nucleus of the population which will determine the level of measles morbidity in the next decade. The conclusion has been made on the necessity of mass immunization (revaccination) of high school and college students and groups of servicemen not later than 1995 in order to eliminate measles by the year of 2000.
PubMed ID
8067116 View in PubMed
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[Arterial hypertension in extreme situations].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature159673
Source
Klin Med (Mosk). 2007;85(10):4-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
V B Simonenko
A Ia Fusin
Iu V Ovchinnikov
A S Aleksandrov
Source
Klin Med (Mosk). 2007;85(10):4-10
Date
2007
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Antihypertensive Agents - therapeutic use
Blood Pressure - drug effects
History, 20th Century
Humans
Hypertension - complications - drug therapy - epidemiology - etiology - history
Hypertensive Encephalopathy - history
Imidazoles - therapeutic use
Incidence
Male
Military Personnel - history - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Prognosis
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Severity of Illness Index
USSR - epidemiology
War
Abstract
Wartime arterial hypertension (AH) is AH that debuts or changes its character under the influence of specific wartime factors or military labor. The features of wartime AH were determined. They included the following: AH incidence during war grows; AH incidence in the battlefront servicemen is higher than in those who serve on the home front; there is a direct correlation between AH prevalence and how often the person participates in the battles; the patients are relatively young. Acute AH forms usually debuted as a result of extremely strong of lingering stressful factors. Acute AH development was characteristic of subjects having family predisposition to hypertensive reactions. The clinical picture of acute AH had features of a hypertensive crisis, frequent complications of which were acute cardiac insufficiency and/or acute hypertensive encephalopathy, which required urgent medical aid. AH was resistant to pharmacotherapy. Further on, high AH level remained, crises occurred, and lesions of target organs progressed. The features of AH in military operators were characterized by medium, high, and very high risk of complications. II and III degrees of AH prevailed. The main risk factors in patients with workplace arterial hypertension (WAH), in addition to emotional tension, often were smoking, family background, hyperlipidemia, excessive body weight (metabolic syndrome). In 87% of patients with WPAH behavioral type A was revealed, mostly with medium or prominent elevation of the level of personal, reactive, and total anxiety. Persons with prognostically unfavorable 24-hour profiles of BP--non-dippers and night-peakers--prevailed (p
PubMed ID
18154171 View in PubMed
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Background factors of enamel focal demineralization in groups of Finnish and Russian children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature227278
Source
J Clin Pediatr Dent. 1991;15(3):174-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
1991
Author
V. Nyyssonen
E. Honkala
E V Borovsky
T A Smirnova
Author Affiliation
Department of Community dentistry, University of Kuopio, Finland.
Source
J Clin Pediatr Dent. 1991;15(3):174-8
Date
1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Carbonated Beverages - adverse effects
Child
Dental Caries - epidemiology - etiology
Diet, Cariogenic
Dietary Carbohydrates - adverse effects
Educational Status
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Questionnaires
Toothbrushing
USSR - epidemiology
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of EFD lesions in relation to some background factors in Finnish and Soviet children. Children aged 7, 9 and 12 years (n = 1187) were examined clinically in Helsinki, Kuopio (Finland), Moscow and Leningrad (USSR). A questionnaire sent to the parents was used to collect data on toothbrushing frequency, use of sweets, cakes, soft drinks, sugar-sweetened tea/coffee and mother's education. In addition to bivariate analysis, log-linear regression models were used for comparing the simultaneous association in two ethnic groups. In general, the Finnish children had more EFD lesions than the Soviet children did. Among the Finns no consistent associations were found between the number of EFD lesions and the use of different sugar products or differences in toothbrushing habits. The number of EFD lesions decreased consistently according to mother's education with the Finnish children, but not with the Soviet children. The final multivariate model for Finnish children included age, toothbrushing frequency, place of residence (Kuopio) and use of soft drinks. The respective model for the Soviet children included age and place of residence (Leningrad). Evidently, the demineralization process or tooth resistance differs in these two ethnic groups.
PubMed ID
1878328 View in PubMed
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[Classification of human diseases and prophylaxis of morbidity among the population].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185699
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2000 Jul-Aug;(4 Suppl):106-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
I D Drynov
V P Sergiev
N A Malyshev
Author Affiliation
Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Institute of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Clinical Infectious Hospital No. 1, Moscow, Russia.
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2000 Jul-Aug;(4 Suppl):106-9
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Communicable Disease Control - methods - trends
Communicable Diseases - classification - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology - mortality
Cross Infection - microbiology
Diagnosis, Differential
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control
Humans
Infection - epidemiology
International Cooperation
Morbidity - trends
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Russia - epidemiology
Systems Analysis
USSR - epidemiology
Abstract
The existing approaches to the classification of diseases, based on the determination of their nosological forms, are mainly oriented on the clinical requirements. Within the only approach to the classification of diseases, it is difficult to combine the requirements of diagnostics and those of the epidemiological generalization of the data on morbidity for the development of the prophylactic system for the prevention of the mass spread of diseases, which is of particular importance for infectious diseases. It is necessary to form the specialized classification of epidemiological situations, based on the International Classification of Diseases and capable of ensuring the assessment of the epidemic spread of infectious diseases and the development of adequate measures for decreasing mass morbidity among the population.
PubMed ID
12712530 View in PubMed
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94 records – page 1 of 10.