In August 1991, three rural Alaska Public Health dentists made a professionally significant return visit to the Soviet Far East. The city of Magadan was the site for the first actual demonstration of portable American dental equipment and treatment techniques in this remote region of Russia. This exchange was held at several clinical locations and took place during the time of the attempted USSR government coup.
Practice of rendering the elements of skilled surgical care to the wounded in Russian Army during the wars of first half of the XIX century has coincided with introduction of evacuation system into medical support of troops' military operations. With improvement of the last. advantages of medical-and-biologic science, military skills the battery sick quarters, dressing detachments providing the work of main dressing stations, the medical care main stations were subsequently included into the kit of medical service means of the formations. In December 1935 this process was ended with creation of division medical-and-sanitary battalion (deployed by the division medical station) that took an active part in rendering skilled surgical care to the wounded during the subsequent local military conflicts and wars.
The Asian-specific 9-bp deletion between the genes for mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II and lysine transfer RNA has been used to trace aboriginal human movements out of Southeast Asia and into portions of the South Pacific. Although it has been used to estimate the number of independent lineages that occur in the New World, it has not been studied in native peoples of the Beringian region. Thus, we have used PCR to amplify and compare the lengths of DNA segments surrounding this deletion in native peoples of Beringia and the adjacent regions, as well as natives of the Altai Mountains of Southwestern Siberia. Of the 176 individuals analyzed here, the deletion was found in only 3 of 25 individuals from the Ust-Kan region of the Altai Mountains. We comment on the distribution of this marker and on potential relationships between Beringians and other Native American groups in which this marker has been surveyed. One Chukchi possessed three copies of the 9-bp sequence, which suggests (1) that the number of copies of this sequence in humans may be more variable than had been believed and (2) that a mechanism of replication based on tandem duplication may be a potential explanation for the origin of this length mutation in humans.
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