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ADHD, autism spectrum disorder, temperament, and character: phenotypical associations and etiology in a Swedish childhood twin study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature112856
Source
Compr Psychiatry. 2013 Nov;54(8):1140-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2013
Author
Nóra Kerekes
Sven Brändström
Sebastian Lundström
Maria Råstam
Thomas Nilsson
Henrik Anckarsäter
Author Affiliation
Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Swedish Prison and Probation Services, R&D Unit, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address: nora.kerekes@neuro.gu.se.
Source
Compr Psychiatry. 2013 Nov;54(8):1140-7
Date
Nov-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology - genetics - psychology
Character
Child
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive - epidemiology - genetics - psychology
Diseases in Twins - epidemiology - genetics - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Personality - physiology
Phenotype
Registries
Sweden - epidemiology
Temperament - physiology
Twins, Dizygotic - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Twins, Monozygotic - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To explore the links between neurodevelopmental disorders - attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) - and personality in a population-based, genetically sensitive study of children.
A population-based sample of 1886 twins aged 9 and 12, enriched for childhood mental health problems, was recruited from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). Parents were interviewed over the telephone using the Autism-Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities (A-TAC) inventory, and in a second step they rated their children according to the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI).
ADHD was strongly correlated with novelty seeking, while ASD was correlated positively with harm avoidance and negatively with reward dependence. The strongest associations between personality traits and neurodevelopmental disorders were negative correlations between the character dimensions of self-directedness and cooperativeness and ADHD and ASD alike. Cross-twin cross-trait correlations between ADHD, ASD, and personality dimensions in monozygotic twins were more than double those in dizygotic twins, indicating a strong genetic effect behind the phenotypic covariation between neurodevelopmental disorders and personality.
Neurodevelopmental disorders are linked specifically to particular temperament profiles and generally to hampered development of the self-governing strategies referred to as "character." Poor self-agency and cooperation may be core functional outcomes in the separation of children with handicapping conditions from those with traits only reminiscent of neurodevelopmental disorders. The associations between neurodevelopmental disorders and personality are at least partly due to genetic effects influencing both conditions. As a consequence, personality must be broadly considered in neuropsychiatry, just as neuropsychiatric disorders and their genetic, neurodevelopmental, and cognitive susceptibilities have to be in personality research and clinical treatment.
PubMed ID
23790516 View in PubMed
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Adolescent alcohol abuse and adverse adult outcomes: evaluating confounds with drinking-discordant twins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262747
Source
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 Aug;38(8):2314-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
Richard J Rose
Torsten Winter
Richard J Viken
Jaakko Kaprio
Source
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 Aug;38(8):2314-21
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Adult
Alcoholism - genetics - psychology
Diseases in Twins - genetics - psychology
Educational Status
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health status
Humans
Income
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Sexual Behavior - psychology
Substance-Related Disorders - complications - epidemiology
Twins, Dizygotic - psychology
Twins, Monozygotic - psychology
Abstract
Adolescent alcohol abuse is associated with adverse outcomes in early adulthood, but differences in familial status and structure and household and community environments correlate with both adolescent drinking and adverse adult outcomes and may explain their association. We studied drinking-discordant twin pairs to evaluate such confounds to ask: Will between-family associations replicate in within-family comparisons?
With longitudinal data from >3,000 Finnish twins, we associated drinking problems at age 18½ with 13 outcomes assessed at age 25; included were sustained substance abuse, poor health, physical symptoms, early coital debut, multiple sexual partners, life dissatisfaction, truncated education, and financial problems. We assessed associations among twins as individuals with linear regression adjusted for correlated observations; within-family analyses of discordant twin pairs followed, comparing paired means for adult outcomes among co-twins discordant for adolescent problem drinking. Defining discordance by extreme scores on self-reported problem drinking at age 18½ permitted parallel analyses of twins as individuals and discordant twin pairs. Alternate definitions of pair-wise discordance and difference score correlations across the entire twin sample yielded supplementary analyses.
All individual associations were highly significant for all definitions of discordance we employed. Depending on definitions of discordance, 11 to 13 comparisons of all drinking-discordant twin pairs and 3 to 6 comparisons of discordant monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs replicated between-family associations. For most outcomes, effect size attenuated from individual-level analysis to that within discordant MZ twin pairs providing evidence of partial confounding in associations reported in earlier research. The exception was the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ); at age 25, GHQ-12 had equivalent associations with age 18½ Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index across all comparisons.
Our analyses control for shared family background, and, partly or fully, for shared genes, to yield within-family replications and more compelling evidence than previously available that adolescent alcohol abuse disrupts transitions into early adulthood.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25040879 View in PubMed
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Are stressful life events causally related to the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms? A monozygotic twin difference study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270866
Source
Eur Psychiatry. 2015 Feb;30(2):309-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2015
Author
P. Vidal-Ribas
A. Stringaris
C. Rück
E. Serlachius
P. Lichtenstein
D. Mataix-Cols
Source
Eur Psychiatry. 2015 Feb;30(2):309-16
Date
Feb-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Child Abuse - psychology
Child Abuse, Sexual - psychology
Cohort Studies
Depression - etiology
Diseases in Twins - etiology
Family Conflict
Female
Humans
Life Change Events
Male
Middle Aged
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder - diagnosis - etiology - genetics
Self Report
Severity of Illness Index
Sweden
Twins, Dizygotic - psychology
Twins, Monozygotic - psychology
Abstract
Traumatic or stressful life events have long been hypothesized to play a role in causing or precipitating obsessive-compulsive symptoms but the impact of these environmental factors has rarely been investigated using genetically informative designs. We tested whether a wide range of retrospectively-reported stressful life events (SLEs) influence the lifetime presence and severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in a large Swedish population-based cohort of 22,084 twins. Multiple regression models examined whether differences in SLEs within twin pairs were significantly associated with differences in OCS. In the entire sample (i.e., both monozygotic [MZ] and dizygotic twin pairs), two SLEs factors, "abuse and family disruption" and "sexual abuse", were significantly associated with the severity of OCS even after controlling for depressive symptoms. Other SLEs factors were either not associated with OCS ("loss", "non-sexual assault") or were no longer associated with OCS after controlling for depression ("illness/injury"). Within MZ pair analyses, which effectively control for genetic and shared environmental effects, showed that only the "abuse and family disruption" factor remained independently related to within-pair differences in OCS severity, even after controlling for depressive symptoms. Despite being statistically significant, the magnitude of the associations was small; "abuse and family disruption" explained approximately 3% of the variance in OCS severity. We conclude that OCS are selectively associated with certain types of stressful life events. In particular, a history of interpersonal abuse, neglect and family disruption may make a modest but significant contribution to the severity of OCS. Further replication in longitudinal cohorts is essential before causality can be firmly established.
Notes
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Erratum In: Eur Psychiatry. 2015 Jul;30(5):664
PubMed ID
25511316 View in PubMed
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Assessment of heritability for personality, based on a short-form of the Eysenck Personality Inventory: a study of 12,898 twin pairs.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature65871
Source
Behav Genet. 1980 Mar;10(2):153-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1980
Author
B. Floderus-Myrhed
N. Pedersen
I. Rasmuson
Source
Behav Genet. 1980 Mar;10(2):153-62
Date
Mar-1980
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Comparative Study
Extraversion (Psychology)
Female
Genotype
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neurotic Disorders - genetics - psychology
Personality
Personality Inventory
Phenotype
Pregnancy
Sex Factors
Sweden
Twins - psychology
Twins, Dizygotic - psychology
Twins, Monozygotic - psychology
Abstract
The influence of genetic factors for two personality dimensions was analyzed using data from 12,898 unselected twin pairs of the Swedish Twin Registry. The heritability index was 0.50 (men) and 0.58 (women) for psychosocial instability. Corresponding figures for psychosocial extraversion were 0.54 and 0.66. Thus, about half the phenotypic variation may be attributed to genetic factors.
PubMed ID
7194035 View in PubMed
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The association between cannabis abuse and subsequent schizophrenia: a Swedish national co-relative control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271860
Source
Psychol Med. 2015 Jan;45(2):407-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2015
Author
G N Giordano
H. Ohlsson
K. Sundquist
J. Sundquist
K S Kendler
Source
Psychol Med. 2015 Jan;45(2):407-14
Date
Jan-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Case-Control Studies
Causality
Comorbidity
Family - psychology
Female
Hallucinogens - adverse effects
Humans
Male
Marijuana Abuse - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Risk factors
Schizophrenia - epidemiology
Siblings - psychology
Sweden - epidemiology
Twins, Monozygotic - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
Although cannabis abuse (CA) is known to be associated with schizophrenia, the causal nature of this association is unclear, with prodromal effects complicating its interpretation.
From Swedish national registry databases, we used a co-relative case-control design with full-sibling, half-sibling and first-cousin comparisons, alongside a general Swedish population sample. Using ICD codes, 5456 individuals with an initial diagnosis of schizophrenia (2000-2010) were matched with five schizophrenia-free controls. We further identified first-cousin, half-sibling and full-sibling pairs discordant for CA and statistically extrapolated results for discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins.
Within the general Swedish population, CA was strongly associated with later schizophrenia [odds ratio (OR) 10.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.99-12.11]. This association was substantially attenuated both by increasing temporal delays between CA exposure and schizophrenia diagnosis and by controlling for increasing degrees of familial confounding. Extrapolated discordant MZ pairs suggested that fully controlling for confounding familial factors reduced the association between CA and later schizophrenia to more modest levels (ORs of approximately 3.3 and 1.6 with 3- and 7-year temporal delays respectively). Opiate, sedative, cocaine/stimulant and hallucinogen abuse were also strongly associated with subsequent schizophrenia in the general population. After controlling for familial confounding, only cocaine/stimulant exposure remained associated.
CA has an appreciable causal impact on future risk for schizophrenia. However, population-based estimates of cannabis-schizophrenia co-morbidity substantially overestimate their causal association. Predictions of the cases of schizophrenia that might be prevented by reduced cannabis consumption based on population associations are therefore likely to be considerably overestimated.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24990397 View in PubMed
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Can personality explain genetic influences on life events?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature64398
Source
J Pers Soc Psychol. 1997 Jan;72(1):196-206
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1997
Author
K J Saudino
N L Pedersen
P. Lichtenstein
G E McClearn
R. Plomin
Author Affiliation
Center for Developmental and Health Genetics, Pennsylvania State University, USA.
Source
J Pers Soc Psychol. 1997 Jan;72(1):196-206
Date
Jan-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Environment
Female
Humans
Life Change Events
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Genetic
Multivariate Analysis
Personality - genetics
Phenotype
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Sex Factors
Sweden
Twins - psychology
Twins, Dizygotic - psychology
Twins, Monozygotic - psychology
Abstract
Previous research in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA) has found genetic influences on life events (R. Plomin, P. Lichtenstein, N.L. Pedersen, G.E. McClearn, & J.R. Nesselroade, 1990). The present study extends this finding by examining sex differences in genetic and environmental contributions to life events and by examining personality as a mediator of genetic influences on life events in SATSA. Analyses were based on 320 twin pairs, including identical and fraternal twins reared together and apart (mean age = 58.6 years). Controllable, desirable, and undesirable life events were revealed significant genetic variance for women. There was no significant genetic variance for either sex for uncontrollable events. Multivariate analyses of personality (as indexed by Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience) and life events suggest that all of the genetic variance on controllable, desirable, and undesirable life events for women is common to personality. Thus, in this sample of older adult women, genetic influences on life events appear to be entirely mediated by personality.
PubMed ID
9008381 View in PubMed
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Change in cohabitation and intrapair similarity of monozygotic (MZ) cotwins for alcohol use, extraversion, and neuroticism.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature229492
Source
Behav Genet. 1990 Mar;20(2):265-76
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1990
Author
J. Kaprio
M. Koskenvuo
R J Rose
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Behav Genet. 1990 Mar;20(2):265-76
Date
Mar-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alcohol Drinking
Diseases in Twins
Extraversion (Psychology)
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Neurotic Disorders - epidemiology - genetics - psychology
Prospective Studies
Regression Analysis
Residence Characteristics
Social Class
Social Environment
Twins - psychology
Twins, Monozygotic - psychology
Abstract
We have reported cross-sectional evidence that behavioral similarities of adult monozygotic (MZ) cotwins are associated with their age at initial separation and the frequency of their subsequent social interaction (Kaprio et al., 1987; Rose et al., 1988; Rose and Kaprio, 1988). Twins who separated early and twins in infrequent interaction were less alike. Data for those reports came from a 1981 survey of the Finnish Twin Cohort. The Finnish cohort had been surveyed in 1975 with a similar questionnaire, and we now report a longitudinal analysis of the 1975-1981 surveys. All cohabiting MZ cotwins, ages 18-25 at the 1975 baseline, were followed up in 1981, and pairwise similarities at baseline and follow-up were compared for three groups: MZ pairs that remained cohabiting, separated pairs in which the cotwins retained regular contact with one another, and separated cotwins whose social interactions at follow-up were infrequent. For alcohol consumption and EPI Neuroticism scores, relative similarities of the MZ cotwins at follow-up paralleled the relative frequencies of their social contact; baseline differences in resemblance for Extraversion scores preceded follow-up differences in social interaction. These findings clarify the directional nature of associations found in our cross-sectional data and provide new, more compelling evidence of effects of shared experience on sibling resemblance for some dimensions of adult behavior.
PubMed ID
2353911 View in PubMed
Less detail

Cohort Profile: Swedish Twin Study on Prediction and Prevention of Asthma (STOPPA).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267037
Source
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2015 Jun;18(3):273-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2015
Author
Catarina Almqvist
Anne K Örtqvist
Vilhelmina Ullemar
Cecilia Lundholm
Paul Lichtenstein
Patrik K E Magnusson
Source
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2015 Jun;18(3):273-80
Date
Jun-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Algorithms
Asthma - epidemiology - genetics - prevention & control
Breath Tests
Child
DNA - blood
Diseases in Twins - epidemiology - genetics - prevention & control
Eicosanoids - urine
Feces - microbiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hematologic Tests
Humans
Hydrocortisone - analysis
Life Style
Male
Microbiota
Nitric Oxide - analysis
Parents
Puberty
Questionnaires
Registries
Research Design
Respiratory Sounds
Risk factors
Saliva - chemistry
Spirometry
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology
Sweden
Twins, Dizygotic - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Twins, Monozygotic - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Asthma is a common childhood disease and several risk factors have been identified; however, the impact of genes and environment is not fully understood. The aim of the Swedish Twin study On Prediction and Prevention of Asthma (STOPPA) is to identify environmental (birth characteristics and early life) and genetic (including epigenetic) factors as determinants for asthmatic disease. Based on the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) (parental interview at 9 or 12 years, N ~23,900) and an asthma and/or wheezing algorithm, we identified a sample of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) same-sexed twin pairs. The twin pairs were classified as asthma concordant (ACC), asthma discordant (ADC) and healthy concordant (HCC). A sample of 9- to 14-year-old twins and their parents were invited to participate in a clinical examination. Background characteristics were collected in questionnaires and obtained from the National Health Registers. A clinical examination was performed to test lung function and capacity (spirometry with reversibility test and exhaled nitric oxide) and collect blood (serology and DNA), urine (metabolites), feces (microbiota), and saliva (cortisol). In total, 376 twin pairs (752 individual twins) completed the study, response rate 52%. All participating twins answered the questionnaire and >90% participated in lung function testing, blood-, and saliva sampling. This article describes the design, recruitment, data collection, measures, and background characteristics, as well as ongoing and planned analyses in STOPPA. Potential gains of the study include the identification of biomarkers, the emergence of candidates for drug development, and new leads for prevention of asthma and allergic disease.
PubMed ID
25900604 View in PubMed
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Coping styles in healthy individuals at risk of affective disorder.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146177
Source
J Nerv Ment Dis. 2010 Jan;198(1):39-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Maj Vinberg
Vibe Gedsoe Froekjaer
Lars Vedel Kessing
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. maj.vinberg@rh.regionh.dk
Source
J Nerv Ment Dis. 2010 Jan;198(1):39-44
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Denmark - epidemiology
Diseases in Twins - etiology - psychology
Female
Humans
Life Change Events
Male
Middle Aged
Mood Disorders - etiology - psychology
Personality Inventory
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Stress, Psychological - psychology
Twins, Dizygotic - psychology
Twins, Monozygotic - psychology
Abstract
Coping styles may influence the perceived life stress experienced by an individual and, therefore, also be critical in the development of affective disorders. This study examined whether familial risk of affective disorder is associated with the use of maladaptive coping styles, in healthy individuals. One hundred twelve high-risk and 78 low-risk individuals were identified through nation-wide registers and invited to participate in an extensive psychiatric evaluation including the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. The high-risk individuals used more Emotion-oriented (p = 0.001) and Avoidance coping (p = 0.04) than individuals not at risk. Adjusted for gender, age, years of education, and recent stressful life events the high-risk individuals used more emotion-oriented coping (p = 0.03). In conclusion, maladaptive coping style may represent a trait marker for mood disorder improving maladaptive coping styles may be a target for selective prevention focusing on subgroups at high risk of developing an affective disorder.
PubMed ID
20061868 View in PubMed
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