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Academic performance of opposite-sex and same-sex twins in adolescence: A Danish national cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265765
Source
Horm Behav. 2015 Mar;69:123-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2015
Author
Linda Ahrenfeldt
Inge Petersen
Wendy Johnson
Kaare Christensen
Source
Horm Behav. 2015 Mar;69:123-31
Date
Mar-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Adult
Androgens - blood
Cognition - physiology
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Educational Measurement - statistics & numerical data
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Male
Perception - physiology
Psychology, Adolescent
Sex Characteristics
Testosterone - blood
Twins - psychology
Twins, Dizygotic - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
Testosterone is an important hormone in the sexual differentiation of the brain, contributing to differences in cognitive abilities between males and females. For instance, studies in clinical populations such as females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) who are exposed to high levels of androgens in utero support arguments for prenatal testosterone effects on characteristics such as visuospatial cognition and behaviour. The comparison of opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twin pairs can be used to help establish the role of prenatal testosterone. However, although some twin studies confirm a masculinizing effect of a male co-twin regarding for instance perception and cognition it remains unclear whether intra-uterine hormone transfer exists in humans. Our aim was to test the potential influences of testosterone on academic performance in OS twins. We compared ninth-grade test scores and teacher ratings of OS (n=1812) and SS (n=4054) twins as well as of twins and singletons (n=13,900) in mathematics, physics/chemistry, Danish, and English. We found that males had significantly higher test scores in mathematics than females (.06-.15 SD), whereas females performed better in Danish (.33-.49 SD), English (.20 SD), and neatness (.45-.64 SD). However, we did not find that OS females performed better in mathematics than SS and singleton females, nor did they perform worse either in Danish or English. Scores for OS and SS males were similar in all topics. In conclusion, this study did not provide evidence for a masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to academic performance in adolescence.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25655669 View in PubMed
Less detail

ADHD, autism spectrum disorder, temperament, and character: phenotypical associations and etiology in a Swedish childhood twin study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature112856
Source
Compr Psychiatry. 2013 Nov;54(8):1140-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2013
Author
Nóra Kerekes
Sven Brändström
Sebastian Lundström
Maria Råstam
Thomas Nilsson
Henrik Anckarsäter
Author Affiliation
Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Swedish Prison and Probation Services, R&D Unit, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address: nora.kerekes@neuro.gu.se.
Source
Compr Psychiatry. 2013 Nov;54(8):1140-7
Date
Nov-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology - genetics - psychology
Character
Child
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive - epidemiology - genetics - psychology
Diseases in Twins - epidemiology - genetics - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Personality - physiology
Phenotype
Registries
Sweden - epidemiology
Temperament - physiology
Twins, Dizygotic - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Twins, Monozygotic - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To explore the links between neurodevelopmental disorders - attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) - and personality in a population-based, genetically sensitive study of children.
A population-based sample of 1886 twins aged 9 and 12, enriched for childhood mental health problems, was recruited from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). Parents were interviewed over the telephone using the Autism-Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities (A-TAC) inventory, and in a second step they rated their children according to the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI).
ADHD was strongly correlated with novelty seeking, while ASD was correlated positively with harm avoidance and negatively with reward dependence. The strongest associations between personality traits and neurodevelopmental disorders were negative correlations between the character dimensions of self-directedness and cooperativeness and ADHD and ASD alike. Cross-twin cross-trait correlations between ADHD, ASD, and personality dimensions in monozygotic twins were more than double those in dizygotic twins, indicating a strong genetic effect behind the phenotypic covariation between neurodevelopmental disorders and personality.
Neurodevelopmental disorders are linked specifically to particular temperament profiles and generally to hampered development of the self-governing strategies referred to as "character." Poor self-agency and cooperation may be core functional outcomes in the separation of children with handicapping conditions from those with traits only reminiscent of neurodevelopmental disorders. The associations between neurodevelopmental disorders and personality are at least partly due to genetic effects influencing both conditions. As a consequence, personality must be broadly considered in neuropsychiatry, just as neuropsychiatric disorders and their genetic, neurodevelopmental, and cognitive susceptibilities have to be in personality research and clinical treatment.
PubMed ID
23790516 View in PubMed
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Adolescent alcohol abuse and adverse adult outcomes: evaluating confounds with drinking-discordant twins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262747
Source
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 Aug;38(8):2314-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
Richard J Rose
Torsten Winter
Richard J Viken
Jaakko Kaprio
Source
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 Aug;38(8):2314-21
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Adult
Alcoholism - genetics - psychology
Diseases in Twins - genetics - psychology
Educational Status
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health status
Humans
Income
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Sexual Behavior - psychology
Substance-Related Disorders - complications - epidemiology
Twins, Dizygotic - psychology
Twins, Monozygotic - psychology
Abstract
Adolescent alcohol abuse is associated with adverse outcomes in early adulthood, but differences in familial status and structure and household and community environments correlate with both adolescent drinking and adverse adult outcomes and may explain their association. We studied drinking-discordant twin pairs to evaluate such confounds to ask: Will between-family associations replicate in within-family comparisons?
With longitudinal data from >3,000 Finnish twins, we associated drinking problems at age 18½ with 13 outcomes assessed at age 25; included were sustained substance abuse, poor health, physical symptoms, early coital debut, multiple sexual partners, life dissatisfaction, truncated education, and financial problems. We assessed associations among twins as individuals with linear regression adjusted for correlated observations; within-family analyses of discordant twin pairs followed, comparing paired means for adult outcomes among co-twins discordant for adolescent problem drinking. Defining discordance by extreme scores on self-reported problem drinking at age 18½ permitted parallel analyses of twins as individuals and discordant twin pairs. Alternate definitions of pair-wise discordance and difference score correlations across the entire twin sample yielded supplementary analyses.
All individual associations were highly significant for all definitions of discordance we employed. Depending on definitions of discordance, 11 to 13 comparisons of all drinking-discordant twin pairs and 3 to 6 comparisons of discordant monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs replicated between-family associations. For most outcomes, effect size attenuated from individual-level analysis to that within discordant MZ twin pairs providing evidence of partial confounding in associations reported in earlier research. The exception was the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ); at age 25, GHQ-12 had equivalent associations with age 18½ Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index across all comparisons.
Our analyses control for shared family background, and, partly or fully, for shared genes, to yield within-family replications and more compelling evidence than previously available that adolescent alcohol abuse disrupts transitions into early adulthood.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25040879 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in twins: a population-based survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature78124
Source
Spine. 2007 Apr 15;32(8):927-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-15-2007
Author
Andersen Mikkel O
Thomsen Karsten
Kyvik Kirsten O
Author Affiliation
Spine Section, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University Hospital of Odense, Odense, Denmark.
Source
Spine. 2007 Apr 15;32(8):927-30
Date
Apr-15-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Cohort Studies
Data Collection
Denmark - epidemiology
Environment
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Statistical
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Registries
Risk factors
Scoliosis - epidemiology - genetics
Twins, Dizygotic
Twins, Monozygotic
Abstract
STUDY DESIGN: A questionnaire-based identification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients in a twin cohort. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to establish a scoliosis twin cohort to provide data on the heritability of AIS. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The etiology of AIS is still unclear, and the true mode of inheritance has yet to be established. Concordance rates in monozygotic twins have been reported to be between 0.73 and 0.92, and in dizygotic twins between 0.36 and 0.63. Studies on concordance in twin pairs provide a basis for analyzing the influence of genetic versus environmental factors. METHODS: All 46,418 twins registered in the Danish Twin Registry born from 1931 to 1982 were sent a questionnaire, which included questions about scoliosis. A total of 34,944 (75.3%) representing 23,204 pairs returned the questionnaire. RESULTS: A subgroup of 220 subjects considered to have AIS was identified, thus giving a prevalence of 1.05%. The concordant twin pairs were all monozygotic. Pairwise, the concordance rate was 0.13 for monozygotic and zero for dizygotic twin pairs; proband-wise concordance was 0.25 for monozygotic and zero for dizygotic pairs. The concordance of monozygotic and dizygotic pairs was significantly different (P
PubMed ID
17426641 View in PubMed
Less detail

Age at onset and familial risk for major depression in a Swedish national twin sample.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature76508
Source
Psychol Med. 2005 Nov;35(11):1573-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2005
Author
Kendler Kenneth S
Gatz Margaret
Gardner Charles O
Pedersen Nancy L
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia/Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0126, USA. kendler@hsc.vcu.edu
Source
Psychol Med. 2005 Nov;35(11):1573-9
Date
Nov-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age of Onset
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Family
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Proportional Hazards Models
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Twins, Dizygotic
Twins, Monozygotic
Abstract
BACKGROUND: In many biomedical disorders, early age at onset (AAO) is an index of high liability to illness which is manifest by an increased risk of illness in relatives. Most but not all prior studies report such a pattern for major depression (MD). METHOD: Lifetime MD and AAO were assessed at personal interview using modified DSM-III-R criteria in 13864 twin pairs, including 4229 onsets of MD, from the Swedish National Twin Registry. Analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Controlling for year of birth, gender, zygosity, co-twin history of MD and the interaction of zygosity and co-twin history, the best-fit model showed a significant main effect and a quadratic effect of AAO of MD in the co-twin on the log hazard ratio for MD in the index twin. When examined together, these effects predicted that from the ages of 15 to approximately 35 years, AAO of MD is moderately negatively related to risk of illness in relatives. However, past age 35, the function flattens out, with little change of risk in relatives with further increases of AAO. Even when the co-twin had a late AAO, the risk in the index twin substantially exceeded that seen when the co-twin had no history of MD. CONCLUSION: In this large sample, AAO is a meaningful, albeit modest, index of familial liability to MD. The relationship is nonlinear and results largely from an increased liability in individuals with an early AAO. These results should be interpreted in the context of the limitations of long-term recall.
PubMed ID
16219115 View in PubMed
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Age of onset in concordant twins and other relative pairs with multiple sclerosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150146
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Aug 1;170(3):289-96
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1-2009
Author
A Dessa Sadovnick
Irene M Yee
Colleen Guimond
Jacques Reis
David A Dyment
George C Ebers
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Genetics, Vancouver Coastal Health Authority-University of British Columbia Hospital, G-920 Detwiller Pavilion, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. sadovnik@infinet.net
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Aug 1;170(3):289-96
Date
Aug-1-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age of Onset
British Columbia - epidemiology
Diseases in Twins - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Family
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Male
Multiple Sclerosis - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Parents
Pedigree
Risk factors
Siblings
Time Factors
Twins - genetics
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics
Abstract
The ages of onset in multiple sclerosis cases span more than 7 decades. Data are presented for affected relative pairs from a Canadian population base of 30,000 multiple sclerosis index cases (1993-2008). The effects of genetic sharing, parent of origin, intergenerational versus collinear differences, and gender on the ages of onset were evaluated in the following concordant pairs: monozygotic twins (n = 29), dizygotic twins (n = 10), siblings (n = 614), first cousins (n = 405), half siblings (n = 29), parent/child (n = 285), and aunt/uncle/niece/nephew (avunculars) (n = 289). Fisher's z test assessed intraclass correlation (r) for ages of onset. Correlations for monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins, full siblings, and first cousins were 0.60, 0.54, 0.20, and 0.10, respectively. Dizygotic twins resembled monozygotic twins more than siblings. The age-of-onset correlation for maternal half siblings (r = 0.37) was higher than that for paternal half siblings (r = 0.26), consistent with other observations suggesting an intrauterine environmental effect on multiple sclerosis risk. Intergenerational comparisons are complicated by substantial increases of multiple sclerosis incidence over time. Genetic loading (familial vs. sporadic cases) did not generally influence the age of onset, but correlation of age of onset in multiple sclerosis relative pairs was proportional to genetic sharing. A maternal parent-of-origin effect on the age of onset in collinear generations was suggested.
Notes
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PubMed ID
19546151 View in PubMed
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Age, Sex, and Genetic and Environmental Effects on Unintentional Injuries in Young and Adult Twins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298559
Source
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2018 12; 21(6):502-506
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Twin Study
Date
12-2018
Author
Simo Salminen
Eero Vuoksimaa
Richard J Rose
Jaakko Kaprio
Author Affiliation
Department of Social Psychology,University of Helsinki,Helsinki,Finland.
Source
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2018 12; 21(6):502-506
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Twin Study
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Diseases in Twins - epidemiology - genetics
Environment
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Registries
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics
Wounds and Injuries - epidemiology - genetics
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of genetic and environment influences and sex on injury involvement using two sets of Finnish twin data. The younger participants were 955 twins born between 1983 and 1987, aged 20 to 24 years. The older participants were 12,428 twins born between 1930 and 1957, aged 33 to 60 years. Within-twin correlations in monozygotic and dizygotic twins suggested that genetic effects play no role in injury involvement among young twins, but do have some effect at older ages. The results indicated that environmental factors have greater importance in injury involvement than genetic factors in the younger twin data set (FT12), whereas in a middle-aged (33-60 years) twin data set, genetic effects explained about quarter of the variance in injury involvement. Sex was a strong contributing factor, with males being generally more prone to injuries than females.
PubMed ID
30428952 View in PubMed
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Aggression as a mediator of genetic contributions to the association between negative parent-child relationships and adolescent antisocial behavior.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature79587
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Mar;16(2):128-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2007
Author
Narusyte Jurgita
Andershed Anna-Karin
Neiderhiser Jenae M
Lichtenstein Paul
Author Affiliation
Dept. of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Box 281, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. jurgita.narusyte@ki.se
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Mar;16(2):128-37
Date
Mar-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Aggression
Antisocial Personality Disorder - epidemiology - genetics
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Models, Genetic
Parent-Child Relations
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics
Abstract
Previous research suggests that the association between conflictual parent-child relationships and maladjustment among adolescents is influenced by genetic effects emanating from the adolescents. In this study, we examined whether these effects are mediated by childhood aggression. The data come from the Twin study of CHild and Adolescent Development (TCHAD), a Swedish longitudinal study including 1,314 twin pairs followed from age 13-14 to 16-17. Early adolescent aggression, parental criticism, and delinquency in later adolescence were rated by parents and children at different time points. Multivariate genetic structural equation models were used to estimate genetic and environmental influences on these constructs and on their covariation. The results showed that approximately half of the genetic contribution to the association between parental criticism and delinquency was explained by early adolescent aggression. It suggests that aggression in children evokes negative parenting, which in turn influences adolescent antisocial behavior. The mechanism proposed by these findings is consistent with evocative gene-environment correlation.
PubMed ID
17136502 View in PubMed
Less detail

Alcohol consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes: a 20-year follow-up of the Finnish twin cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183513
Source
Diabetes Care. 2003 Oct;26(10):2785-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2003
Author
Sofia Carlsson
Niklas Hammar
Valdemar Grill
Jaakko Kaprio
Author Affiliation
Division of Epidemiology, Stockholm Centre of Public Health, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. sofia.carlsson@imm.ki.se
Source
Diabetes Care. 2003 Oct;26(10):2785-90
Date
Oct-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Alcoholism - epidemiology
Body mass index
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology - prevention & control
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Male
Questionnaires
Twins, Dizygotic
Twins, Monozygotic
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate alcohol consumption in relation to the incidence of type 2 diabetes.
The study population consisted of 22778 twins of the Finnish Twin Cohort. This cohort was compiled in 1975 and includes all same-sexed twins born in Finland before 1958. Information on alcohol, smoking, diet, physical activity, medical, and social conditions was obtained by questionnaires administered in 1975, 1981, and 1990. By record linkage to national registers of hospital discharge and prescribed medication, 580 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were identified during 20 years of follow-up.
Moderate alcohol consumption (5-29.9 g/day in men and 5-19.9 g/day in women) tended to be associated with a reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes compared with low consumption (or=25.0 kg/m(2)) subjects (relative risk 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-1.0 [men]; 0.6, 0.3-1.1 [women]). High alcohol consumption (>or=20 g/day) was associated with an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes in lean women (2.9, 1.1-7.5) but not in overweight women or in men. In women, binge drinking was associated with an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes (2.1, 1.0-4.4). Analyses of alcohol-discordant twin pairs supported a reduced risk in moderate consuming twins compared with their low-consuming cotwins (odds ratio 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-1.5).
The results of this study suggested that moderate alcohol consumption may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. On the other hand, binge drinking and high alcohol consumption may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes in women.
PubMed ID
14514580 View in PubMed
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Alcohol use disorder and divorce: evidence for a genetic correlation in a population-based Swedish sample.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290102
Source
Addiction. 2017 Apr; 112(4):586-593
Publication Type
Journal Article
Twin Study
Date
Apr-2017
Author
Jessica E Salvatore
Sara Larsson Lönn
Jan Sundquist
Paul Lichtenstein
Kristina Sundquist
Kenneth S Kendler
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.
Source
Addiction. 2017 Apr; 112(4):586-593
Date
Apr-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Twin Study
Keywords
Aged
Alcoholism - epidemiology - genetics
Divorce - statistics & numerical data
Environment
European Continental Ancestry Group - genetics
Female
Gene-Environment Interaction
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Registries
Risk factors
Siblings
Sweden - epidemiology
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics
Abstract
We tested the association between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and divorce; estimated the genetic and environmental influences on divorce; estimated how much genetic and environmental influences accounted for covariance between AUD and divorce; and estimated latent genetic and environmental correlations between AUD and divorce. We tested sex differences in these effects.
We identified twin and sibling pairs with AUD and divorce information in Swedish national registers. We described the association between AUD and divorce using tetrachorics and used twin and sibling models to estimate genetic and environmental influences on divorce, on the covariance between AUD and divorce and the latent genetic and environmental correlations between AUD and divorce.
Sweden.
A total of 670?836 individuals (53% male) born 1940-1965.
Life-time measures of AUD and divorce.
AUD and divorce were related strongly (males: rtet  = +0.44, 95% CI = 0.43, 0.45; females rtet  = +0.37, 95% CI = 0.36, 0.38). Genetic factors accounted for a modest proportion of the variance in divorce (males: 21.3%, 95% CI = 7.6, 28.5; females: 31.0%, 95% CI = 18.8, 37.1). Genetic factors accounted for most of the covariance between AUD and divorce (males: 52.0%, 95% CI = 48.8, 67.9; females: 53.74%, 95% CI = 17.6, 54.5), followed by non-shared environmental factors (males: 45.0%, 95% CI = 37.5, 54.9; females: 41.6%, 95% CI = 40.3, 60.2). Shared environmental factors accounted for a negligible proportion of the covariance (males: 3.0%, 95% CI = -3.0, 13.5; females: 4.75%, 95% CI = 0.0, 6.6). The AUD-divorce genetic correlations were high (males: rA = +0.76, 95% CI = 0.53, 0.90; females +0.52, 95% CI = 0.24, 0.67). The non-shared environmental correlations were modest (males: rE = +0.32, 95% CI = 0.31, 0.40; females: +0.27, 95% CI = 0.27, 0.36).
Divorce and alcohol use disorder are correlated strongly in the Swedish population, and the heritability of divorce is consistent with previous studies. Covariation between AUD and divorce results from overlapping genetic and non-shared environmental factors. Latent genetic and non-shared environmental correlations for alcohol use disorder and divorce are high and moderate.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27981669 View in PubMed
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