BACKGROUND: The levels of cardiovascular risk factors vary in different segments of a population. Our aim was to investigate ethnic differences in cardiovascular risk factors among five major immigrant groups in Oslo, Norway. DESIGN: A population-based, cross-sectional study. METHODS: The Oslo Immigrant Health study was conducted in 2002. All first-generation immigrants aged 31-60 years living in Oslo from Sri Lanka, Turkey, Iran, Vietnam, and a random sample of 30% of those from Pakistan, were invited. A total of 3019 individuals provided written consent and met the inclusion criteria. Participants had a clinical examination, blood test, and were asked to complete the study questionnaire. RESULTS: Immigrants from Vietnam had the highest high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, whereas immigrants from Sri Lanka and Pakistan, and men from Turkey, had the lowest HDL-cholesterol and highest triglycerides. Immigrants from Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Turkey had the highest blood pressure. Smoking was least prevalent among Sri Lankan immigrants and most common among Turkish immigrants. Ethnic differences in blood pressure and HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides among women, were attenuated after adjusting for obesity measures. A moderate and higher (> or =10%) Framingham risk score was most common among Turkish and Pakistani immigrants. CONCLUSIONS: We found ethnic differences in triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and blood pressure; however, the differences in blood pressure were surprisingly small. Ethnic differences were partly explained by obesity. The prevalence of smoking also varied greatly between the different ethnic groups.
In a comparable epidemiological study of kindergarten children, 455 4- and 5-year-olds in Salzgitter (FRG) and 171 4- and 5-year-olds in Oslo (Norway) were examined. Caries was scored at the cavitation level according to WHO criteria. The percentage of caries-free children was higher and the dmfs scores were lower in Oslo than in Salzgitter. It is postulated that this was the result of different levels of fluoride exposure, nutritional habits and dental treatment provision.
Our objective was to compare sociodemographic conditions and risky/health behaviors affecting Turkish or Middle Eastern versus ethnic Swedes and Finnish immigrant adolescents, respectively. All eligible adolescents 13-18 years old (3,216 pupils) in a medium-sized town in Sweden completed a validated in-depth questionnaire (Q90), with 165 questions. One hundred and one adolescents were Turkish or Middle Eastern immigrants, while 73 were immigrants from Finland, a neighboring country to Sweden. Turkish/Middle Eastern immigrants were more likely to attend a theoretical program in school, were rarely bullied, as compared to ethnic Swedes and Finns. Turkish/Middle Eastern girls used alcohol at a lower frequency, and reported less depression and sexual experiences than ethnic Swedish girls and Finns. A higher frequency of Finnish adolescents had been bullied and had vandalized, and Finnish adolescents were also determined to have used tobacco and cannabis and to be heavy drinkers more frequently than boys from Turkey/the Middle East. We concluded that adolescent immigrants from Turkey and the Middle East seem to be well adapted to Sweden and also have ambitions for a higher education. Differences in risky behaviors were particularly pronounced in comparisons with immigrants from Finland for both boys and girls.
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare autosomal recessive lethal condition characterized by fever, cytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and hemophagocytosis. The hallmark of FHL is defect apoptosis triggering and lymphocyte cellular cytotoxicity. Thus far three disease-causing genes (PRF1, UNC13D, STX11) have been identified. We performed a genotype-phenotype study in a large, multi-ethnic cohort of 76 FHL patients originating from 65 unrelated families. Biallelic mutations in PRF1, UNC13D and STX11 were demonstrated in 13/74 (18%), 6/61 (10%) and 14/70 (20%) patients, respectively. In 27/60 (45%) patients analyzed for all three genes, no molecular diagnosis was established. STX11 mutations were most common in Turkish families (7/28, 25%), whereas in Middle East families, PRF1 mutations were most frequent (6/13, 46%). No biallelic mutation was identified in most families of Nordic origin (13/14, 93%). Patients carrying PRF1 mutations had higher risk of early onset (age
From 1975 to 1985, 25 Danish children (aged less than 15 yrs) and 40 children of immigrants were notified for tuberculosis in Copenhagen for the first time. A follow-up was undertaken in 1987. The annual rate of tuberculosis per 100,000 among the Danish children was 5 and among immigrant children 68-200 depending on the nationality. At the time of diagnosis, no significant differences were present between Danes and immigrants as regards age, sex, occurrence of symptoms or previous BCG immunization, whereas there were significantly more bacteriologically proven cases among the immigrants. All Danish children had respiratory tuberculosis only, whereas 13 immigrant children had extrapulmonary manifestations including one case of miliary and two cases of meningeal tuberculosis. At follow-up, all patients were cured for tuberculosis and had experienced a normal physical development.