Using a questionnaire survey, this study compared psychological adaptation (self-esteem, life satisfaction, and mental health problems) of Turkish adolescents in Norway and Sweden, and examined to what extent ethnic and majority identities, acculturation strategies, and perceived discrimination accounted for adaptation among Turkish adolescents. The samples consisted of 407 Turks (111 in Norway and 296 in Sweden) with a mean age of 15.2 years and 433 host adolescents (207 in Norway, 226 in Sweden) with a mean age of 15.6 years. Turks in Norway reported poorer psychological adaptation than Turks in Sweden. Predictors of good adaptation were Turkish identity and integration, whereas poor adaptation was related to marginalization and perceived discrimination. The results indicated that the poorer adaptation of Turks in Norway compared to that of Turks in Sweden could be due to lower degree of Turkish identity and higher degree of perceived discrimination.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Immigrant women from the Middle East have higher cardiovascular risk compared to native women. Whether low antioxidant intake, oxidative stress or inflammation contributes to risk is unknown. In a cross-sectional study of 157 randomly selected foreign-born women (Iranian and Turkish) and native women living in Sweden, we investigated antioxidant status, oxidative stress (F(2)-isoprostanes) and systemic inflammation (plasma high sensitive C-reactive protein; CRP) markers. We also investigated relationships between F(2)-isoprostanes, CRP and cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS AND RESULT: Dietary intake was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls repeated four times. Micronutrient intake was not consistently different between groups. Serum alpha-tocopherol, but not gamma-tocopherol levels, was lower in Turkish vs. Swedish women (P0.21, P values
We used the nation-wide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyse the risk of nervous system tumours, leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in age groups 0-4 and 0-19 years among Swedish-born offspring of immigrants. The study included 850 000 individuals with an immigrant background, including European, Asian and American parents. We calculated standardised incidence ratios for the above three malignancies using Swedish offspring as a reference. Subjects were grouped by region or by selected countries of parental origin. No group differed significantly from Swedes in the occurrence of nervous system neoplasm or leukaemia. Offspring of Yugoslav fathers (SIR 2.27) and Turkish parents were at increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The highest risk was noted for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among young offspring (0-4 years) of two Turkish parents (6.87). The currently available limited data on rates for childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in these countries do not explain the risk in the offspring of immigrants. Yugoslavs and Turks are recent immigrant groups to Sweden, and their offspring have been subject to much population mixing, perhaps leading to recurring infections and immunological stimulation, which may contribute to their excess of lymphomas.
We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyse cancer risks in 613,000 adult immigrants to Sweden. All the immigrants had become parents in Sweden and their median age at immigration was 24 years for men and 22 years for women. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 18 cancer sites using native Swedes as a reference. Data were also available from compatriot marriages. All cancer was decreased by 5% and 8% for immigrant men and women, respectively. However, most of the male increase was due to lung cancer for which male immigrants showed a 41% excess. Among individual cancer sites and immigrant countries, 110 comparisons were significant, 62 showing protection and 48 an increased risk. Most of the differences between the rates in immigrants and Swedes could be ascribed to the variation of cancer incidence in the indigenous populations. Some high immigrant SIRs were 5.05 (n = 6, 95% CI 1.82-11.06) for stomach cancer in Rumanian women and 2.41 (41, 1.73-3.27) for lung cancer in Dutch men. At some sites, such as testis, prostate, skin (melanoma), kidney, cervix and nervous system, the SIRs for immigrants were decreased; in some groups of immigrants SIRs were about 0.20. The highest rates for testicular cancer were noted for Danes and Chileans. Women from Yugoslavia and Turkey had an excess of thyroid tumours. All immigrant groups showed breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers at or below the Swedish level but the differences were no more than 2-fold.
Our objective was to compare sociodemographic conditions and risky/health behaviors affecting Turkish or Middle Eastern versus ethnic Swedes and Finnish immigrant adolescents, respectively. All eligible adolescents 13-18 years old (3,216 pupils) in a medium-sized town in Sweden completed a validated in-depth questionnaire (Q90), with 165 questions. One hundred and one adolescents were Turkish or Middle Eastern immigrants, while 73 were immigrants from Finland, a neighboring country to Sweden. Turkish/Middle Eastern immigrants were more likely to attend a theoretical program in school, were rarely bullied, as compared to ethnic Swedes and Finns. Turkish/Middle Eastern girls used alcohol at a lower frequency, and reported less depression and sexual experiences than ethnic Swedish girls and Finns. A higher frequency of Finnish adolescents had been bullied and had vandalized, and Finnish adolescents were also determined to have used tobacco and cannabis and to be heavy drinkers more frequently than boys from Turkey/the Middle East. We concluded that adolescent immigrants from Turkey and the Middle East seem to be well adapted to Sweden and also have ambitions for a higher education. Differences in risky behaviors were particularly pronounced in comparisons with immigrants from Finland for both boys and girls.
This paper discusses the different explanatory models and the contested perceptions of cancer etiology among residents of two Anatolian villages and migrants from these villages in Turkey, Sweden, and Germany. These communities suffer from an endemic, deadly cancer called mesothelioma, the cause of which is associated with exposure to an environmental carcinogenic substance, erionite, which is present in large deposits in the ground, in the stones, and white stucco that the villagers used to build their homes, and in the air in the form of dust. However, an examination of patients' disease trends, experiences, and local explanations has led to new investigations of possible familial risk cofactors. This paper selectively focuses on different aspects of cancer risk and its manifested metaphors, aesthetics, and perceptions. The different categories of cancer risk freely interact, derive an important part of their meaning from the context of the doctor-cancer patient relationship, and are created and navigated by the cancer narrative.
OBJECTIVE: To describe access to dental care in a population-based sample of foreign-born Swedish residents in relation to dental health. DESIGN: The study was based on data from the Immigrant Survey of Living Conditions in four minority study groups consisting of a total of 1,898 Swedish residents born in Poland, Chile, Turkey and Iran aged 27-60. An age-matched study group of 2,477 Swedish-born residents from the Survey of Living Conditions of 1996 was added as a comparison group. The study also included 2,228 children aged 3-15 years in the minority households and 2,892 children in the households of the Swedish-born study group. RESULTS: The risk of poor dental health was higher in all four minority study groups than for the Swedish-born study group after adjusting for socio-economic variables. In the adult minority study groups the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for having prostheses and problems with chewing was 6.3 (4.3-9.1) and 2.7 (1.8-4.3), respectively, for the Polish-born, 4.8 (3.3-7.1) and 3.2 (2.1-4.9) for the Chilean-born, 4.6 (3.1-6.9) and 4.8 (3.6-7.2) for the Turkish-born, and 2.7 (1.5-4.8) and 6.5 (4.1-10.3) for the Iranian-born compared with the Swedish-born. In the child study group all four minority groups had an increased risk of caries ranging from OR 1.6 (1.3-2.1) in the Chilean group to 2.5 (2.0-3.0) in the Turkish group compared with the children with Swedish-born parents. The adults in all four minority study groups more often lacked regular treatment by a dentist than Swedish-born residents. The OR for not having been treated by a dentist during the 2 years preceding the interview ranged from 1.9 (1.4-2.6) in the Polish-born study group to 3.0 (2.3-4.0) in the Chilean-born study group after adjustment for socio-economic factors and general health. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that adults in minority populations in Sweden use less dental care despite having greater needs of dental treatment than the majority population. This inequity calls for action in health policy and preventive dental health programmes.
This study analyses the risk of self-reported diabetes mellitus among Turkish-born immigrants in Sweden. Two simple random samples were used: The Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare Immigrant Survey, and the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions, both from 1996. Totally 526 Turkish immigrants, 285 men and 241 women, were compared with 2854 Swedish controls, 1425 men and 1429 women, all in ages 27-60 years. Data were analysed by sex in an age-adjusted model, and a full model also included education, employment status, BMI and country of birth (logistic regression). Among Turkish men, age-adjusted diabetes prevalence was not higher than among Swedish men, odds ratio (OR) 1.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-3.11). Among Turkish women, age-adjusted diabetes prevalence was higher than among Swedish women, OR 3.22 (95% CI 1.36-7.64), but when also adjusting for educational level, employment status and BMI, OR was 1.22 (95% CI 0.41-3.66). We conclude, that age-adjusted presence of known diabetes was higher among Turkish-born women than among Swedish women, but was explained by lower employment rate, lower educational status and a higher level of overweight and obesity.
BACKGROUND: The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) has demonstrated large differences in the prevalence of atopic disorders in children between different regions in the world. Populations with a higher standard of living and a more westernized lifestyle tend to have higher rates of atopy and asthma. Many hypotheses regarding environmental causes of atopic disorder focus on the early childhood environment. OBJECTIVE: To study the influence of ethnicity and country of birth for the prevalence of atopic disorders. METHODS: The prevalence of atopic disorders in Swedish residents born in Turkey and Chile, who settled in Sweden as adults in the 1980s, was compared with their own Swedish-born children and a sample of Swedish-born parents and their children in interview data from the Survey of Living Conditions in 1996. The study group included 1734 adults 27-60 years of age and their 2964 children aged 3-15. RESULTS: The Chilean-born parents and their children had the highest risk for allergic asthma; adjusted odds ratios (ORs) 2.2 (1.2-4.0) and 2.7 (1.6-4.5), respectively, and allergic rhino-conjunctivitis; OR 1.6 (1.1-3) and 1.6 (1.1-2.5) in both groups, when compared with the Swedish-born parents and their children. The Turkish-born parents and their children had the lowest risk for allergic rhino-conjunctivitis; both groups had OR 0.6 (0. 4-0.9) and the children in this group also had the lowest risk for eczema; OR; 0.4 (0.3-0.7). The risk for all atopic disorders was lower in the Turkish group compared with the Chileans. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that ethnicity is an important determinant of atopic disorder independent of the external childhood environment. The value of international comparisons of environment and risk for atopic disorders can be questioned until more is known about factors related to ethnicity, such as genetic susceptibility and diet, for the development of atopy.
This paper is based on fieldwork done from 1996-1999 in different locations among village communities from Central Anatolia afflicted with the deadly malignancy of mesothelioma. Medical research has long established the relationship between mesothelioma and the environment; yet in earlier work correlations deduced through my genealogies provide evidence of a possible genetic cofactor causing these cancer deaths. This paper illustrates how medical research becomes an arena for local and global political interests and how the disruption of the doctor-cancer patient relationship impedes medical research. Methods include illness and clinical narratives, kinship charts and pedigrees, and observation of involved doctors and patients in multiple sites and geographical locations. Under focus are the anthropologist's involvement in global biomedical research and her interconnectedness with its political events.