In a comparable epidemiological study of kindergarten children, 455 4- and 5-year-olds in Salzgitter (FRG) and 171 4- and 5-year-olds in Oslo (Norway) were examined. Caries was scored at the cavitation level according to WHO criteria. The percentage of caries-free children was higher and the dmfs scores were lower in Oslo than in Salzgitter. It is postulated that this was the result of different levels of fluoride exposure, nutritional habits and dental treatment provision.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a substantially increased risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We examined the contribution of length of residence, socioeconomic position and lifestyle-related factors to the differences in the prevalence of MetS among migrants compared with Finns.
Cross-sectional data from randomly sampled 30-64year-old health examination participants (318 Russian, 212 Somali, and 321 Kurdish origin migrants) of the Migrant Health and Wellbeing Survey (2010-2012) were used. Health 2011 Survey participants (n=786) were the reference group.
Compared with Finns, prevalence of MetS was significantly higher among all migrants except for Somali men. Among men, age-adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) of MetS compared with Finns was 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-2.46 for Russians, PR 0.95 (95% CI 0.54-1.67) for Somali, and PR 2.10 (95% CI 1.51-2.93) for Kurds. Among women, respective PRs were 1.45 (95% CI 1.08-1.97) for Russians, PR 2.34 (95% CI 1.75-3.14) for Somali and PR 2.22 (95% CI 1.67-2.97) for Kurds. Adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle-related factors attenuated the differences in MetS among women but not men.
Further studies should aim at identifying factors related to elevated risk for MetS among Russian and Kurdish men. Interventions aiming at improving lifestyle-related factors are needed for reducing inequalities in the prevalence of MetS among migrant women. Effectiveness of interventions focusing on reducing overweight and obesity among Somali and Kurdish women should be evaluated.
INTRODUCTION: The health condition in a population of elderly Turkish immigrants is investigated with special focus on dementia conditions. The possibility to use the screening test Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) in relation to the investigated population is evaluated as well as their future need for a nursing home. MATERIAL AND METHODS: With the help of an interpreter, the Turkish population of elderly (> 60 years old) in the municipality of Ishöj was interviewed about educational-, working- and health conditions. In addition to MMSE and semi-structured interviews, the ICD-10 criteria were used in diagnosing dementia conditions. RESULTS: We found an increased frequency of dementia conditions (13,3%) compared to the expected prevalence of 7% in the Danish population. Furthermore, we found an increased frequency of diabetes type-2. The use of MMSE as a guideline instrument of screening was shown to be applicable only with modifications to persons who were illiterates and without any education, and to those 1st-generation immigrants who were to a limited degree integrated as citizens CONCLUSION: The increased incidence of dementia conditions and diabetes type-2 shows the need for a more assertive approach.
This study analyses the risk of self-reported diabetes mellitus among Turkish-born immigrants in Sweden. Two simple random samples were used: The Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare Immigrant Survey, and the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions, both from 1996. Totally 526 Turkish immigrants, 285 men and 241 women, were compared with 2854 Swedish controls, 1425 men and 1429 women, all in ages 27-60 years. Data were analysed by sex in an age-adjusted model, and a full model also included education, employment status, BMI and country of birth (logistic regression). Among Turkish men, age-adjusted diabetes prevalence was not higher than among Swedish men, odds ratio (OR) 1.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-3.11). Among Turkish women, age-adjusted diabetes prevalence was higher than among Swedish women, OR 3.22 (95% CI 1.36-7.64), but when also adjusting for educational level, employment status and BMI, OR was 1.22 (95% CI 0.41-3.66). We conclude, that age-adjusted presence of known diabetes was higher among Turkish-born women than among Swedish women, but was explained by lower employment rate, lower educational status and a higher level of overweight and obesity.
BACKGROUND: The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) has demonstrated large differences in the prevalence of atopic disorders in children between different regions in the world. Populations with a higher standard of living and a more westernized lifestyle tend to have higher rates of atopy and asthma. Many hypotheses regarding environmental causes of atopic disorder focus on the early childhood environment. OBJECTIVE: To study the influence of ethnicity and country of birth for the prevalence of atopic disorders. METHODS: The prevalence of atopic disorders in Swedish residents born in Turkey and Chile, who settled in Sweden as adults in the 1980s, was compared with their own Swedish-born children and a sample of Swedish-born parents and their children in interview data from the Survey of Living Conditions in 1996. The study group included 1734 adults 27-60 years of age and their 2964 children aged 3-15. RESULTS: The Chilean-born parents and their children had the highest risk for allergic asthma; adjusted odds ratios (ORs) 2.2 (1.2-4.0) and 2.7 (1.6-4.5), respectively, and allergic rhino-conjunctivitis; OR 1.6 (1.1-3) and 1.6 (1.1-2.5) in both groups, when compared with the Swedish-born parents and their children. The Turkish-born parents and their children had the lowest risk for allergic rhino-conjunctivitis; both groups had OR 0.6 (0. 4-0.9) and the children in this group also had the lowest risk for eczema; OR; 0.4 (0.3-0.7). The risk for all atopic disorders was lower in the Turkish group compared with the Chileans. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that ethnicity is an important determinant of atopic disorder independent of the external childhood environment. The value of international comparisons of environment and risk for atopic disorders can be questioned until more is known about factors related to ethnicity, such as genetic susceptibility and diet, for the development of atopy.
Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
To explore and compare sensitivity and specificity for HbA1c =48mmol/mol as a predictor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in two populations with different ethnicity and to examine the predictive value of two levels of HbA1c (=42mmol/mol, =39mmol/mol) for prediabetes in these populations.
Four cohorts were examined with an oral glucose tolerance test. (1) The MEDIM Study (n=1991 individuals of Swedish and Iraqi ancestry); (2) The Skaraborg Project (n=1327 individuals of Swedish ancestry); (3) The 4-D study (n=424 individuals of Swedish, Iraqi and Turkish ancestry); (4) The Flemingsberg study (n=212 participants of Turkish ancestry).
HbA1c =48mmol/mol had a sensitivity for T2DM of 31% and 25% respectively in individuals of Middle-East and Swedish ancestry. The positive and negative predictive value was high in both populations (70.3, 96.4 and 96.2, 97.6 respectively). Using HbA1c =42mmol/mol and =39mmol/mol as a predictor for prediabetes gave a sensitivity of 17% and 36% in individuals of Middle-East and 15% and 34% in individuals of Swedish ancestry.
Even if HbA1c =48mmol/mol is a valuable diagnostic tool, it is a blunt and insensitive tool for screening and would exclude most people with T2DM, independent of ancestry and age. HbA1c is an inefficient way to detect individuals with prediabetes.
This study uses data collected in 1996 by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. By means of interviews with 1980 foreign-born immigrants, an attempt was made to determine the impact of a) migration status (country of birth/ethnicity), b) exposure to violence, c) Antonovsky's sense of coherence, d) acculturation status (knowledge of Swedish), e) sense of control over one's life, f) economic difficulties, and g) education, both on psychological distress (using General Health Questionnaire 12) and psychosomatic complaints (daytime fatigue, sleeping difficulties, and headache/migraine). Iranians and Chileans (age-adjusted) were at great risk for psychological distress as compared with Poles, whereas Turks and Kurds exhibited no such risk. When the independent factors were included in the model, the migration status effect decreased to insignificance (with the exception of Iranian men). A low sense of coherence, poor acculturation (men only), poor sense of control, and economic difficulties were strongly associated with the outcomes, generally accounting for a convincing link between migration status and psychological distress. Furthermore, a low sense of coherence, poor acculturation (men only), poor sense of control, and economic difficulties in exile seemed to be stronger risk factors for psychological distress in this group than exposure to violence before migration.
AIMS: To analyse whether there is an association between sex and poor self-reported health (SRH) and psychological distress in Kurdish immigrants. METHODS: This cross-sectional study is based on a sample consisting of immigrants, aged 27- 60 years, with self-reported Kurdish ethnicity (n=111, men; n=86, women) in Sweden originating from Iran and Turkey. It is based on data collected in 1996 from the first Swedish National Survey on the living conditions of immigrant groups conducted by Statistics Sweden. The prevalences of reporting poor health, sleeping difficulties, general fatigue and anxiety were estimated by sex. The association between sex and SRH and psychological distress was analysed by an unconditional logistic regression model estimating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. The final model was adjusted for age, marital status, education, housing and employment. Immigrant-specific migration-related variables were used to explore possible reasons for the sex differences. RESULTS: Kurdish men and women had a high prevalence of poor SRH and psychological distress. Age-adjusted odds ratios for anxiety were higher in Kurdish women. Sex differences in anxiety remained even when marital status, education, housing and employment were taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: Kurdish men and women report a high prevalence of poor SRH and indicators of psychological distress. Women had a higher risk for anxiety than men. Negative experiences of pre-migration as well as post-migration experiences, such as economic difficulties, preoccupation with the political situation in the home country, perceived discrimination, and feelings of poor control over one's life, were associated with the outcomes.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to compare a group of immigrant women from the Middle East living in Sweden to Swedish-born controls regarding the prevalence of certain cardiovascular risk factors. DESIGN: Health survey of randomly selected foreign-born women and women native in Sweden. SETTING: Uppsala, Sweden. SUBJECTS: A total of 107 immigrant women aged 35-64 years from the Middle East (Iran [N=71] and Turkey [N=36]) living in Uppsala and residents in Sweden for at least three years and a control group of ethnic Swedish women (N=50). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A questionnaire and a clinical examination specially directed towards measuring cardiovascular risk factors and prevalence of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. RESULTS: A less beneficial cardiovascular risk profile was found among immigrant women than among ethnic Swedish women. Turkish women had substantially higher body mass index (BMI), larger waist, higher waist/hip ratio and sagittal abdominal diameter, higher levels of serum triglycerides, and lower HDL cholesterol concentration compared with Swedish-born women. A similar tendency was seen also for Iranian women. CONCLUSION: The present study shows important ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease risk factor pattern. Immigrant women from Iran and Turkey are heavier than women born in Sweden and have a higher prevalence of abdominal obesity, an unfavorable lipid profile, and a high degree of physical inactivity during leisure time, which may predispose for a higher incidence of diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
High prevalences of vitamin D deficiency have been reported in non-Western immigrants moving to Western countries, including Norway, but there is limited information on vitamin D status in infants born to immigrant mothers. We aimed to describe the vitamin D status and potentially correlated factors among infants aged 6 weeks and their mothers with Pakistani, Turkish or Somali background attending child health clinics in Norway. Eighty-six healthy infants and their mothers with immigrant background were recruited at the routine 6-week check-up at nine centres between 2004 and 2006. Venous or capillary blood was collected at the clinics from the mother and infant, and serum separated for analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) and intact parathyroid hormone (s-iPTH). The mean maternal s-25(OH)D was 25.8 nmol/l, with 57 % below 25 nmol/l and 15 % below 12.5 nmol/l. Of the mothers, 26 % had s-iPTH>5.7 pmol/l. For infants, mean s-25(OH)D was 41.7 nmol/l, with 47 % below 25 nmol/l and 34 % below 12.5 nmol/l. s-25(OH)D was considerably lower in the thirty-one exclusively breast-fed infants (mean 11.1 nmol/l; P