The adjustment and behaviour of immigrant schoolchildren were studied by means of teacher interviews. The material consisted of 50 Finnish and 37 southern European children. For comparison, 44 Swedish migrant children were also sampled. All had settled in the County of Stockholm three years prior to the study. Swedish children who had lived in the county for more than four years served as controls. In the teachers' opinions the immigrants as a whole had adjustment difficulties more often than the controls, but the proportion of children with such difficulties was no higher among the immigrant children. Compared with the controls the immigrant children showed a higher frequency of symptoms relating to a disordered self-esteem. The immigrant children were also considered to have a lower status and to be less trustworthy than the controls. The schooling of these children demands serious attention in order to prevent discrimination and to promote a feeling of personal worth among the children.
Using a questionnaire survey, this study compared psychological adaptation (self-esteem, life satisfaction, and mental health problems) of Turkish adolescents in Norway and Sweden, and examined to what extent ethnic and majority identities, acculturation strategies, and perceived discrimination accounted for adaptation among Turkish adolescents. The samples consisted of 407 Turks (111 in Norway and 296 in Sweden) with a mean age of 15.2 years and 433 host adolescents (207 in Norway, 226 in Sweden) with a mean age of 15.6 years. Turks in Norway reported poorer psychological adaptation than Turks in Sweden. Predictors of good adaptation were Turkish identity and integration, whereas poor adaptation was related to marginalization and perceived discrimination. The results indicated that the poorer adaptation of Turks in Norway compared to that of Turks in Sweden could be due to lower degree of Turkish identity and higher degree of perceived discrimination.
We used the nation-wide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyse the risk of nervous system tumours, leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in age groups 0-4 and 0-19 years among Swedish-born offspring of immigrants. The study included 850 000 individuals with an immigrant background, including European, Asian and American parents. We calculated standardised incidence ratios for the above three malignancies using Swedish offspring as a reference. Subjects were grouped by region or by selected countries of parental origin. No group differed significantly from Swedes in the occurrence of nervous system neoplasm or leukaemia. Offspring of Yugoslav fathers (SIR 2.27) and Turkish parents were at increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The highest risk was noted for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among young offspring (0-4 years) of two Turkish parents (6.87). The currently available limited data on rates for childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in these countries do not explain the risk in the offspring of immigrants. Yugoslavs and Turks are recent immigrant groups to Sweden, and their offspring have been subject to much population mixing, perhaps leading to recurring infections and immunological stimulation, which may contribute to their excess of lymphomas.
Our objective was to compare sociodemographic conditions and risky/health behaviors affecting Turkish or Middle Eastern versus ethnic Swedes and Finnish immigrant adolescents, respectively. All eligible adolescents 13-18 years old (3,216 pupils) in a medium-sized town in Sweden completed a validated in-depth questionnaire (Q90), with 165 questions. One hundred and one adolescents were Turkish or Middle Eastern immigrants, while 73 were immigrants from Finland, a neighboring country to Sweden. Turkish/Middle Eastern immigrants were more likely to attend a theoretical program in school, were rarely bullied, as compared to ethnic Swedes and Finns. Turkish/Middle Eastern girls used alcohol at a lower frequency, and reported less depression and sexual experiences than ethnic Swedish girls and Finns. A higher frequency of Finnish adolescents had been bullied and had vandalized, and Finnish adolescents were also determined to have used tobacco and cannabis and to be heavy drinkers more frequently than boys from Turkey/the Middle East. We concluded that adolescent immigrants from Turkey and the Middle East seem to be well adapted to Sweden and also have ambitions for a higher education. Differences in risky behaviors were particularly pronounced in comparisons with immigrants from Finland for both boys and girls.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a substantially increased risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We examined the contribution of length of residence, socioeconomic position and lifestyle-related factors to the differences in the prevalence of MetS among migrants compared with Finns.
Cross-sectional data from randomly sampled 30-64year-old health examination participants (318 Russian, 212 Somali, and 321 Kurdish origin migrants) of the Migrant Health and Wellbeing Survey (2010-2012) were used. Health 2011 Survey participants (n=786) were the reference group.
Compared with Finns, prevalence of MetS was significantly higher among all migrants except for Somali men. Among men, age-adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) of MetS compared with Finns was 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-2.46 for Russians, PR 0.95 (95% CI 0.54-1.67) for Somali, and PR 2.10 (95% CI 1.51-2.93) for Kurds. Among women, respective PRs were 1.45 (95% CI 1.08-1.97) for Russians, PR 2.34 (95% CI 1.75-3.14) for Somali and PR 2.22 (95% CI 1.67-2.97) for Kurds. Adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle-related factors attenuated the differences in MetS among women but not men.
Further studies should aim at identifying factors related to elevated risk for MetS among Russian and Kurdish men. Interventions aiming at improving lifestyle-related factors are needed for reducing inequalities in the prevalence of MetS among migrant women. Effectiveness of interventions focusing on reducing overweight and obesity among Somali and Kurdish women should be evaluated.
The purpose of this study was to compare dental status and resource requirements in immigrants to Norway, three to 18 years of age, with Norwegians of the same age group. Data on dmft and DMFT, fillings placed and time spent for dental care were registered in the records of 9000 such children in the period 1992-93. Eleven per cent of the children were immigrant children. Immigrant children three to six years of age had fewer sound teeth and more decayed, missing and filled teeth than Norwegian children and the pre-school immigrant children had higher treatment needs. However, the time spent on a pre-school child with an immigrant background was shorter than the time spent on a Norwegian child with the same number of decayed teeth. The differences between immigrants and Norwegians disappeared with higher age. Immigrant children older than six years had dental health and resource requirements similar to those of Norwegian adolescents.
Dental caries and the utilization of the Public Dental Service in Sweden were investigated in 84 Turkish immigrant children born in Sweden, 69 Turkish children born in Turkey and 85 Swedish age- and sex-matched controls. Dental fear was also studied. The mean age of the children was 8.3 years. Turkish immigrant children had more caries both in the primary and in the permanent teeth than Swedish children. Children born in Turkey had more caries in the primary dentition than those born in Sweden. Turkish children came more often for emergency visits than Swedish children and expressed dental fear more frequently. Turkish immigrant children therefore constitute a high risk group for caries and need supervision early after immigration.
OBJECTIVE: To describe access to dental care in a population-based sample of foreign-born Swedish residents in relation to dental health. DESIGN: The study was based on data from the Immigrant Survey of Living Conditions in four minority study groups consisting of a total of 1,898 Swedish residents born in Poland, Chile, Turkey and Iran aged 27-60. An age-matched study group of 2,477 Swedish-born residents from the Survey of Living Conditions of 1996 was added as a comparison group. The study also included 2,228 children aged 3-15 years in the minority households and 2,892 children in the households of the Swedish-born study group. RESULTS: The risk of poor dental health was higher in all four minority study groups than for the Swedish-born study group after adjusting for socio-economic variables. In the adult minority study groups the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for having prostheses and problems with chewing was 6.3 (4.3-9.1) and 2.7 (1.8-4.3), respectively, for the Polish-born, 4.8 (3.3-7.1) and 3.2 (2.1-4.9) for the Chilean-born, 4.6 (3.1-6.9) and 4.8 (3.6-7.2) for the Turkish-born, and 2.7 (1.5-4.8) and 6.5 (4.1-10.3) for the Iranian-born compared with the Swedish-born. In the child study group all four minority groups had an increased risk of caries ranging from OR 1.6 (1.3-2.1) in the Chilean group to 2.5 (2.0-3.0) in the Turkish group compared with the children with Swedish-born parents. The adults in all four minority study groups more often lacked regular treatment by a dentist than Swedish-born residents. The OR for not having been treated by a dentist during the 2 years preceding the interview ranged from 1.9 (1.4-2.6) in the Polish-born study group to 3.0 (2.3-4.0) in the Chilean-born study group after adjustment for socio-economic factors and general health. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that adults in minority populations in Sweden use less dental care despite having greater needs of dental treatment than the majority population. This inequity calls for action in health policy and preventive dental health programmes.