BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate compliance by ethnic groups to the mammography screening programme in the City of Copenhagen over six years and to look at developments over time. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mammography screening has, since 1 April 1991, been offered free of charge to all women between 50 and 69 years of age in the City of Copenhagen. Data on women born in Poland, Turkey, Yugoslavia, and Pakistan divided into five-year groups were compared to that of women born in Denmark and all other foreign-born women. Data from 1991 to 1997 were grouped according to the mammography performed, the offer refused, or non-appearance. RESULTS: Whereas 71% of Danish-born women accepted mammography, compliance by foreign-born women was significantly lower. The offer was accepted by 36% of Pakistanis, 45% of Yugoslavians, 53% of Turks, and 64% of Poles. Compliance fell in all ethnic groups with advancing age. Of the Danish women, 16% failed to keep the appointment. The corresponding percentages were 52 for Pakistanis, 48 for Yugoslavians, 41 for Turks, and 23 for Poles. The proportion of women who actively refused the offer was similar in all groups. The number of invited women fell during the period. CONCLUSIONS: The lower participation of women from the countries under study might have various explanations: among them the language barrier, procedure-related factors, and a lower incidence of breast cancer in the countries of origin.
The adjustment and behaviour of immigrant schoolchildren were studied by means of teacher interviews. The material consisted of 50 Finnish and 37 southern European children. For comparison, 44 Swedish migrant children were also sampled. All had settled in the County of Stockholm three years prior to the study. Swedish children who had lived in the county for more than four years served as controls. In the teachers' opinions the immigrants as a whole had adjustment difficulties more often than the controls, but the proportion of children with such difficulties was no higher among the immigrant children. Compared with the controls the immigrant children showed a higher frequency of symptoms relating to a disordered self-esteem. The immigrant children were also considered to have a lower status and to be less trustworthy than the controls. The schooling of these children demands serious attention in order to prevent discrimination and to promote a feeling of personal worth among the children.
Using a questionnaire survey, this study compared psychological adaptation (self-esteem, life satisfaction, and mental health problems) of Turkish adolescents in Norway and Sweden, and examined to what extent ethnic and majority identities, acculturation strategies, and perceived discrimination accounted for adaptation among Turkish adolescents. The samples consisted of 407 Turks (111 in Norway and 296 in Sweden) with a mean age of 15.2 years and 433 host adolescents (207 in Norway, 226 in Sweden) with a mean age of 15.6 years. Turks in Norway reported poorer psychological adaptation than Turks in Sweden. Predictors of good adaptation were Turkish identity and integration, whereas poor adaptation was related to marginalization and perceived discrimination. The results indicated that the poorer adaptation of Turks in Norway compared to that of Turks in Sweden could be due to lower degree of Turkish identity and higher degree of perceived discrimination.
As part of a cross-sectional study, carried out among Turkish mother-infant pairs, the mothers of 269 infants living in Istanbul and 30 living in Stockholm were asked their opinions as to the advantages and/or disadvantages of breastfeeding. The answers were categorized according to the attributes mentioned, quantified and related to the socio-economic status of the area of residence, maternal education, origin, current infant feeding practice and contraceptive method. In Istanbul, 63% of the responses stressed some advantage and 31% some disadvantage of breastfeeding. The contraceptive effect was considered the major advantage and the possibility of milk insufficiency the major disadvantage. In Stockholm, the nutritional value of breastfeeding was considered the most important advantage. No disadvantage was mentioned in Stockholm, despite the fact that breastfeeding durations among the immigrant group was shorter than that of the group in Istanbul. The implications of the responses are analyzed. It is hypothesized that mother-centered advantages, such as the birth-spacing effect of breastfeeding, may be more important motivators for continuing breastfeeding among women living under less-advantaged social conditions, and that, if this is true for some groups of mothers, the infant-centered emphasis in the breastfeeding promotional messages may need modification to include the interests of the mothers, as well.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Immigrant women from the Middle East have higher cardiovascular risk compared to native women. Whether low antioxidant intake, oxidative stress or inflammation contributes to risk is unknown. In a cross-sectional study of 157 randomly selected foreign-born women (Iranian and Turkish) and native women living in Sweden, we investigated antioxidant status, oxidative stress (F(2)-isoprostanes) and systemic inflammation (plasma high sensitive C-reactive protein; CRP) markers. We also investigated relationships between F(2)-isoprostanes, CRP and cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS AND RESULT: Dietary intake was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls repeated four times. Micronutrient intake was not consistently different between groups. Serum alpha-tocopherol, but not gamma-tocopherol levels, was lower in Turkish vs. Swedish women (P0.21, P values
The study compares frequencies of birth defects between immigrant groups and the rest of the Norwegian population in Norway and estimates the influence of consanguinity and socioeconomic factors on these frequencies. The authors studied all 1.56 million births in Norway from 1967 to 1993. Of these, 7,494 children had two Pakistani parents, 84,688 had one Norwegian and one immigrant parent, and 25,891 had two immigrant parents from countries other than Pakistan. The risk of birth defects relative to the Norwegian group was 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.92-1.03) in the group with one foreign and one Norwegian parent, 1.39 (95% confidence interval 1.22-1.60) in the group with two Pakistani parents, and 1.04 (95% confidence interval 0.95-1.14) in the group with two parents from other foreign countries; 0.1% of the Norwegian and 30.1% of the Pakistani children had parents who were first cousins. There was no difference in risk between children of nonconsanguineous Pakistani parents and the other groups. The relative risk of birth defects among children whose parents were first cousins was about 2 in all groups. Among the Pakistani, 28% of all birth defects could be attributed to consanguinity. Low paternal educational level was associated with a slightly increased risk in the Norwegian group, while independent effects of parental educational levels were not found in any other groups.
Erratum In: Am J Epidemiol 1997 May 15;145(10):957
Technology developments have changed immigrants' adaptation patterns in modern societies, allowing immigrants to sustain dense, complex connections with homeland while adjusting in the host country, a new phenomenon termed transnationalism. As empirical studies on immigrant transnationalism are still scarce, the purpose of this study was to investigate mean levels and determinants of a core component of transnationalism-transnational travel. Hypotheses were based on context of exiting homeland, living conditions in Germany and demographic and sociocultural variables. Transnational travel behaviour was assessed as frequency of return trips in three immigrant groups in Germany: ethnic Germans, Russian Jews and Turks. Interviews were conducted with 894 women participants from these groups. Results showed substantial transnational travel behaviour in all groups with Turks reporting higher levels than ethnic Germans and Russian Jews. Interindividual differences in transnational travel within groups were also examined. Results indicated similarities (e.g. network size in home country related positively to transnational travel frequency in all groups) and group-specific associations (e.g. co-ethnic identifying related positively to transnational travel frequency among Turks, but negatively for the other groups). Our study highlights the need for a new understanding of immigration and emphasises the consideration of group-specific mechanisms in transnational travel behaviour.
We used the nation-wide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyse the risk of nervous system tumours, leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in age groups 0-4 and 0-19 years among Swedish-born offspring of immigrants. The study included 850 000 individuals with an immigrant background, including European, Asian and American parents. We calculated standardised incidence ratios for the above three malignancies using Swedish offspring as a reference. Subjects were grouped by region or by selected countries of parental origin. No group differed significantly from Swedes in the occurrence of nervous system neoplasm or leukaemia. Offspring of Yugoslav fathers (SIR 2.27) and Turkish parents were at increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The highest risk was noted for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among young offspring (0-4 years) of two Turkish parents (6.87). The currently available limited data on rates for childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in these countries do not explain the risk in the offspring of immigrants. Yugoslavs and Turks are recent immigrant groups to Sweden, and their offspring have been subject to much population mixing, perhaps leading to recurring infections and immunological stimulation, which may contribute to their excess of lymphomas.
We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyse cancer risks in 613,000 adult immigrants to Sweden. All the immigrants had become parents in Sweden and their median age at immigration was 24 years for men and 22 years for women. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 18 cancer sites using native Swedes as a reference. Data were also available from compatriot marriages. All cancer was decreased by 5% and 8% for immigrant men and women, respectively. However, most of the male increase was due to lung cancer for which male immigrants showed a 41% excess. Among individual cancer sites and immigrant countries, 110 comparisons were significant, 62 showing protection and 48 an increased risk. Most of the differences between the rates in immigrants and Swedes could be ascribed to the variation of cancer incidence in the indigenous populations. Some high immigrant SIRs were 5.05 (n = 6, 95% CI 1.82-11.06) for stomach cancer in Rumanian women and 2.41 (41, 1.73-3.27) for lung cancer in Dutch men. At some sites, such as testis, prostate, skin (melanoma), kidney, cervix and nervous system, the SIRs for immigrants were decreased; in some groups of immigrants SIRs were about 0.20. The highest rates for testicular cancer were noted for Danes and Chileans. Women from Yugoslavia and Turkey had an excess of thyroid tumours. All immigrant groups showed breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers at or below the Swedish level but the differences were no more than 2-fold.