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54 records – page 1 of 6.

[A case of the tick (Ixodidae) hiperinvasion of the tundra vole in magadan environs].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289887
Source
Parazitologiia. 2017 Jan-Feb; 51(1):45-50
Publication Type
Case Reports
Journal Article
Author
N E Dokuchaev
Source
Parazitologiia. 2017 Jan-Feb; 51(1):45-50
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Case Reports
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Arvicolinae - parasitology
Fatal Outcome
Ixodes - pathogenicity - physiology
Male
Siberia
Tick Infestations - parasitology - pathology
Tundra
Abstract
A case of tundra vole death as a result its hyperinvasion by ticks Ixodes angustus on the northern periphery of the Asiatic range of the parasite is given.
PubMed ID
29401575 View in PubMed
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The annual, temporal and spatial pattern of Setaria tundra outbreaks in Finnish reindeer: a mechanistic transmission model approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297847
Source
Parasit Vectors. 2018 Nov 12; 11(1):565
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-12-2018
Author
Najmul Haider
Sauli Laaksonen
Lene Jung Kjær
Antti Oksanen
Rene Bødker
Author Affiliation
National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. najha@vet.dtu.dk.
Source
Parasit Vectors. 2018 Nov 12; 11(1):565
Date
Nov-12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Climate change
Culicidae - parasitology
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Larva
Microclimate
Models, Theoretical
Peritonitis
Reindeer - parasitology
Seasons
Setaria Nematode - isolation & purification
Setariasis - epidemiology - parasitology - transmission
Spatio-Temporal Analysis
Temperature
Tundra
Abstract
In northern Finland (Lapland), reindeer are reared as semi-domesticated animals. The region has a short summer season of 2-3 months, yet reindeer are infected with the mosquito-borne filarioid parasite Setaria tundra. The infection causes peritonitis and perihepatitis, which cause significant economic losses due to reduced body weight of infected animals. The objective of this study was to: (i) describe the spatial and temporal pattern of outbreaks in three different areas across Finnish Lapland; and (ii) construct a temperature-driven mechanistic transmission model to quantify the potential role of temperature on intensity of S. tundra transmission in reindeer.
We developed a temperature-driven transmission model able to predict the number of S. tundra potentially transmitted from an infectious reindeer. We applied the model to the years 2004-2015, and compared the predictions to the proportion of reindeer whose livers were condemned due to S. tundra infection at the time of slaughter.
The mean proportion of liver condemnation increased in reindeer slaughtered in late autumn/winter compared to earlier dates. The outbreaks were geographically clustered each year but there were no fixed foci where outbreaks occurred. Larger outbreaks were recorded in the southern regions of reindeer-herding areas compared to the central or northern parts of Lapland. Our model showed that temperatures never allowed for transmission of more than a single generation of S. tundra each season. In southern (Kuusamo) and central (Sodankylä) Lapland, our model predicted an increasing trend from 1979 to 2015 for both the duration of the effective transmission period of S. tundra (P
PubMed ID
30415639 View in PubMed
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Bioavailable soil phosphorus decreases with increasing elevation in a subarctic tundra landscape.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268853
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(3):e92942
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Andrea G Vincent
Maja K Sundqvist
David A Wardle
Reiner Giesler
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(3):e92942
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Ecosystem
Geography
Phosphorus - chemistry
Soil - chemistry
Sweden
Tundra
Abstract
Phosphorus (P) is an important macronutrient in arctic and subarctic tundra and its bioavailability is regulated by the mineralization of organic P. Temperature is likely to be an important control on P bioavailability, although effects may differ across contrasting plant communities with different soil properties. We used an elevational gradient in northern Sweden that included both heath and meadow vegetation types at all elevations to study the effects of temperature, soil P sorption capacity and oxalate-extractable aluminium (Alox) and iron (Feox) on the concentration of different soil P fractions. We hypothesized that the concentration of labile P fractions would decrease with increasing elevation (and thus declining temperature), but would be lower in meadow than in heath, given that N to P ratios in meadow foliage are higher. As expected, labile P in the form of Resin-P declined sharply with elevation for both vegetation types. Meadow soils did not have lower concentrations of Resin-P than heath soils, but they did have 2-fold and 1.5-fold higher concentrations of NaOH-extractable organic P and Residual P, respectively. Further, meadow soils had 3-fold higher concentrations of Alox + Feox and a 20% higher P sorption index than did heath soils. Additionally, Resin-P expressed as a proportion of total soil P for the meadow was on average half that in the heath. Declining Resin-P concentrations with elevation were best explained by an associated 2.5-3.0 °C decline in temperature. In contrast, the lower P availability in meadow relative to heath soils may be associated with impaired organic P mineralization, as indicated by a higher accumulation of organic P and P sorption capacity. Our results indicate that predicted temperature increases in the arctic over the next century may influence P availability and biogeochemistry, with consequences for key ecosystem processes limited by P, such as primary productivity.
Notes
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Cites: New Phytol. 2013 Feb;197(3):1002-1123206238
PubMed ID
24676035 View in PubMed
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Biotic responses buffer warming-induced soil organic carbon loss in Arctic tundra.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297735
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 10; 24(10):4946-4959
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
10-2018
Author
Junyi Liang
Jiangyang Xia
Zheng Shi
Lifen Jiang
Shuang Ma
Xingjie Lu
Marguerite Mauritz
Susan M Natali
Elaine Pegoraro
Christopher Ryan Penton
César Plaza
Verity G Salmon
Gerardo Celis
James R Cole
Konstantinos T Konstantinidis
James M Tiedje
Jizhong Zhou
Edward A G Schuur
Yiqi Luo
Author Affiliation
Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma.
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 10; 24(10):4946-4959
Date
10-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Alaska
Carbon - analysis - metabolism
Climate change
Models, Theoretical
Permafrost - chemistry - microbiology
Photosynthesis
Plants - metabolism
Soil - chemistry
Soil Microbiology
Tundra
Abstract
Climate warming can result in both abiotic (e.g., permafrost thaw) and biotic (e.g., microbial functional genes) changes in Arctic tundra. Recent research has incorporated dynamic permafrost thaw in Earth system models (ESMs) and indicates that Arctic tundra could be a significant future carbon (C) source due to the enhanced decomposition of thawed deep soil C. However, warming-induced biotic changes may influence biologically related parameters and the consequent projections in ESMs. How model parameters associated with biotic responses will change under warming and to what extent these changes affect projected C budgets have not been carefully examined. In this study, we synthesized six data sets over 5 years from a soil warming experiment at the Eight Mile Lake, Alaska, into the Terrestrial ECOsystem (TECO) model with a probabilistic inversion approach. The TECO model used multiple soil layers to track dynamics of thawed soil under different treatments. Our results show that warming increased light use efficiency of vegetation photosynthesis but decreased baseline (i.e., environment-corrected) turnover rates of SOC in both the fast and slow pools in comparison with those under control. Moreover, the parameter changes generally amplified over time, suggesting processes of gradual physiological acclimation and functional gene shifts of both plants and microbes. The TECO model predicted that field warming from 2009 to 2013 resulted in cumulative C losses of 224 or 87 g/m2 , respectively, without or with changes in those parameters. Thus, warming-induced parameter changes reduced predicted soil C loss by 61%. Our study suggests that it is critical to incorporate biotic changes in ESMs to improve the model performance in predicting C dynamics in permafrost regions.
PubMed ID
29802797 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Canada, Minister of the Environment. Hinterland Who's Who. 15 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
2012
Introduction • The word “tundra” comes from a word used by the Sami people of northwestern Russia that means “barren land” or “treeless land.” • The tundra is the world’s youngest biome, having formed about 10,000 years ago at the end of the last ice age. • Humans have been
  1 document  
Author
Langlois, Annie
Source
Canada, Minister of the Environment. Hinterland Who's Who. 15 p.
Date
2012
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Report
File Size
898754
Keywords
Tundra
Plants and fungi
Wildlife
Disturbances and threats
Documents
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Cesium-137 concentrations in Alaskan tundra vegetation, 1967

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102075
Source
Arctic and Alpine Research. 1969 Sum;1(3):147-154
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sum-1969
Author
Potter, LD
Barr, M
Author Affiliation
Biology Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM
Source
Arctic and Alpine Research. 1969 Sum;1(3):147-154
Date
Sum-1969
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
137Cs
Alaska
Anaktuvuk Pass
Arctic
Cesium-137
Food chain
Lichens
Tundra
Vegetation
Abstract
Samples of arctic tundra vegetation were collected in 1967 near Anaktuvuk Pass, Alaska, for cesium-137 analysis. Ten-gram dry-weight samples were counted over a 10.2-cm-diameter Nal(T1) crystal. Results are expressed in picocuries of 137Cs per gram, per 930 cm2 of area, and 930 cm2 of foliage cover. One-way analysis of variance on the count date for all samples indicated differences to be highly significant. Shrubby deciduous species had the lowest 137Cs concentration, followed by moist heath plants, species with large amounts of carryover, and finally dry lichen-heath mats and dry foliose lichens from areas of maximum seasonal exposure to fallout. Lichens of ridges provide winter feed for caribou and resultant high 137Cs concentrations in flesh of animals killed during the spring migration.
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Climate-driven effects of fire on winter habitat for caribou in the Alaskan-Yukon Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267833
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(7):e100588
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
David D Gustine
Todd J Brinkman
Michael A Lindgren
Jennifer I Schmidt
T Scott Rupp
Layne G Adams
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(7):e100588
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Forests
Models, Biological
Reindeer - physiology
Seasons
Tundra
Yukon Territory
Abstract
Climatic warming has direct implications for fire-dominated disturbance patterns in northern ecosystems. A transforming wildfire regime is altering plant composition and successional patterns, thus affecting the distribution and potentially the abundance of large herbivores. Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are an important subsistence resource for communities throughout the north and a species that depends on terrestrial lichen in late-successional forests and tundra systems. Projected increases in area burned and reductions in stand ages may reduce lichen availability within caribou winter ranges. Sufficient reductions in lichen abundance could alter the capacity of these areas to support caribou populations. To assess the potential role of a changing fire regime on winter habitat for caribou, we used a simulation modeling platform, two global circulation models (GCMs), and a moderate emissions scenario to project annual fire characteristics and the resulting abundance of lichen-producing vegetation types (i.e., spruce forests and tundra >60 years old) across a modeling domain that encompassed the winter ranges of the Central Arctic and Porcupine caribou herds in the Alaskan-Yukon Arctic. Fires were less numerous and smaller in tundra compared to spruce habitats throughout the 90-year projection for both GCMs. Given the more likely climate trajectory, we projected that the Porcupine caribou herd, which winters primarily in the boreal forest, could be expected to experience a greater reduction in lichen-producing winter habitats (-21%) than the Central Arctic herd that wintered primarily in the arctic tundra (-11%). Our results suggest that caribou herds wintering in boreal forest will undergo fire-driven reductions in lichen-producing habitats that will, at a minimum, alter their distribution. Range shifts of caribou resulting from fire-driven changes to winter habitat may diminish access to caribou for rural communities that reside in fire-prone areas.
Notes
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Erratum In: PLoS One. 2014;9(10):e112584
PubMed ID
24991804 View in PubMed
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Contrasting above- and belowground organic matter decomposition and carbon and nitrogen dynamics in response to warming in High Arctic tundra.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296993
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 06; 24(6):2660-2672
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-2018
Author
Daan Blok
Samuel Faucherre
Imre Banyasz
Riikka Rinnan
Anders Michelsen
Bo Elberling
Author Affiliation
Center for Permafrost (CENPERM), Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 06; 24(6):2660-2672
Date
06-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Biomass
Carbon Cycle
Global warming
Greenland
Nitrogen Cycle
Permafrost
Soil - chemistry
Tundra
Abstract
Tundra regions are projected to warm rapidly during the coming decades. The tundra biome holds the largest terrestrial carbon pool, largely contained in frozen permafrost soils. With warming, these permafrost soils may thaw and become available for microbial decomposition, potentially providing a positive feedback to global warming. Warming may directly stimulate microbial metabolism but may also indirectly stimulate organic matter turnover through increased plant productivity by soil priming from root exudates and accelerated litter turnover rates. Here, we assess the impacts of experimental warming on turnover rates of leaf litter, active layer soil and thawed permafrost sediment in two high-arctic tundra heath sites in NE-Greenland, either dominated by evergreen or deciduous shrubs. We incubated shrub leaf litter on the surface of control and warmed plots for 1 and 2 years. Active layer soil was collected from the plots to assess the effects of 8 years of field warming on soil carbon stocks. Finally, we incubated open cores filled with newly thawed permafrost soil for 2 years in the active layer of the same plots. After field incubation, we measured basal respiration rates of recovered thawed permafrost cores in the lab. Warming significantly reduced litter mass loss by 26% after 1 year incubation, but differences in litter mass loss among treatments disappeared after 2 years incubation. Warming also reduced litter nitrogen mineralization and decreased the litter carbon to nitrogen ratio. Active layer soil carbon stocks were reduced 15% by warming, while soil dissolved nitrogen was reduced by half in warmed plots. Warming had a positive legacy effect on carbon turnover rates in thawed permafrost cores, with 10% higher respiration rates measured in cores from warmed plots. These results demonstrate that warming may have contrasting effects on above- and belowground tundra carbon turnover, possibly governed by microbial resource availability.
PubMed ID
29235209 View in PubMed
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[Developmental instability of the organism as a result of pessimization of environment under anthropogenic transformation of natural landscapes].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261185
Source
Ontogenez. 2014 May-Jun;45(3):151-61
Publication Type
Article
Author
E G Shadrina
Ia L Vol'pert
Source
Ontogenez. 2014 May-Jun;45(3):151-61
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arvicolinae
Mining
Shrews
Siberia
Trees
Tundra
Abstract
The value of fluctuating asymmetry is considered to be an indicator of the developmental instability of the organism. The consequences of activities of the mining industry plants, which are characterized by alienation and transformation of large areas of natural landscapes, are analyzed as an anthropogenic factor. The objects of study were small mammals (northern red-backed (Clethrionomys rutilus) and gray red-backed (Clethrionomys rufocanus) voles, tundra vole (Microtus oeconomus), Laxmann's (Sorex caecutiens) and tundra (S. tundrensis) shrews) and trees (Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla), Betula divaricate, Betula exilis, Duschekiafruticosa, and common osier (Salix viminalis)). In total, 3500 skulls and approximately 30000 leaves collected in the taiga zone of Yakutia were studied. The index offluctuating asymmetry, as well as population parameters and composition of small mammal communities, were analyzed. The data on the value of the fluctuating asymmetry in the studied species in natural habitats are given. It is shown that, in natural conditions, this parameter can rise with deterioration in living conditions, particularly at the ecological periphery of the range. Anthropogenic transformation of natural landscapes creates an "anthropogenic periphery" and causes changes similar to the adaptive responses at the northern limit of the distribution of species. It was found that, through pollution and disruption of ecosystems, the mining industry affects all levels of organization of the living matter, but the population and cenotic parameters give an unambiguous response only at macroanthropogenic transformations. Increase in the level of fluctuating asymmetry is the most sensitive indicator of anthropogenic impact and it should also be taken into account that disruptions in the developmental stability of an organism reflect the destructive processes occurring in the population and community.
PubMed ID
25720274 View in PubMed
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Diminished response of arctic plants to warming over time.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271018
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0116586
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Kelseyann S Kremers
Robert D Hollister
Steven F Oberbauer
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0116586
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Ecological Parameter Monitoring - methods
Ecosystem
Global warming
Longitudinal Studies
Plant Development
Plant Physiological Phenomena
Plants - metabolism
Temperature
Tundra
Abstract
The goal of this study is to determine if the response of arctic plants to warming is consistent across species, locations and time. This study examined the impact of experimental warming and natural temperature variation on plants at Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska beginning in 1994. We considered observations of plant performance collected from 1994-2000 "short-term" and those from 2007-2012 "long-term". The plant traits reported are the number of inflorescences, inflorescence height, leaf length, and day of flower emergence. These traits can inform us about larger scale processes such as plant reproductive effort, plant growth, and plant phenology, and therefore provide valuable insight into community dynamics, carbon uptake, and trophic interactions. We categorized traits of all species monitored at each site into temperature response types. We then compared response types across traits, plant growth forms, sites, and over time to analyze the consistency of plant response to warming. Graminoids were the most responsive to warming and showed a positive response to temperature, while shrubs were generally the least responsive. Almost half (49%) of response types (across all traits, species, and sites combined) changed from short-term to long-term. The percent of plants responsive to warming decreased from 57% (short-term) to 46% (long-term). These results indicate that the response of plants to warming varies over time and has diminished overall in recent years.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25767881 View in PubMed
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54 records – page 1 of 6.