Adalimumab (Humira) restores clinical response in patients with secondary loss of efficacy from infliximab (Remicade) or etanercept (Enbrel): results from the STURE registry at Karolinska University Hospital.
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) antagonist adalimumab (Humira) can be efficacious after secondary loss of efficacy (i.e. loss of clinical response in patients who had initially demonstrated clinical response) to infliximab (Remicade) or etanercept (Enbrel). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 36 patients from the Stockholm TNF-alpha follow-up registry (STURE) who received adalimumab after secondary loss of efficacy to infliximab (group A, n = 27) or etanercept (group B, n = 9), and 26 patients who were started on adalimumab as the first TNF-alpha antagonist (group C). RESULTS: In group A, the baseline disease activity score 28 (DAS28) at infliximab institution was 5.5+/-0.2. During infliximab treatment, the mean best DAS28 was 3.7+/-0.2 (p
Data on lymphoma risk in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are scarce. This study was undertaken to assess the risk of lymphoma in AS and PsA overall and in relation to therapies, including tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi), for which lymphoma risks are a concern.
Through the Swedish National Patient Register we assembled nationwide prevalence cohorts of patients with AS (n = 8,707) and patients with PsA (n = 19,283) for whom data were obtained between 2001 and 2010. Each cohort member was matched to 5 population comparator subjects. Linkage with the nationwide Cancer Register identified all lymphomas recorded from 2001 to 2010. Through the Swedish Biologics Register (Anti-Rheumatic Therapy in Sweden [ARTIS]), we identified patients exposed to TNFi in the AS cohort (n = 1,908) and the PsA cohort (n = 2,605) before lymphoma diagnosis. Hazard ratios (HRs) for lymphoma were estimated by Cox regression. Crude incidences of lymphoma in TNFi-exposed and TNFi-naive patients were compared.
For AS patients, the HR of having lymphoma versus the general population was 0.9 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.5-1.6) (14 lymphomas). For PsA patients, the corresponding HR was 1.2 (95% CI 0.9-1.7) (45 lymphomas). For PsA patients treated with methotrexate and/or sulfasalazine, the HR of having lymphoma was 1.7 (95% CI 1.0-3.1). The numbers and incidence of lymphoma were not materially different in TNFi-exposed versus TNFi-naive AS and PsA patients, although the numbers of lymphomas were small.
In contrast to rheumatoid arthritis, the average risks of lymphoma in AS or PsA are not elevated, although increased risks in a subset of PsA patients cannot be excluded. Our findings indicate that TNFi does not affect the risk of lymphoma in AS or in PsA.
Biological therapy for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has led to improved disease control beyond that of conventional treatments. International recommendations encourage clinicians prescribing biological treatments to register patients in national registers to collect information on outcome and toxicity. Patients with AS (n = 229) from the Register of Biological Treatment in Finland (ROB-FIN) with severe disease of long duration were followed-up for up to 24 months. Due to an active disease, one or more concomitant disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were used by 86% at commencement of biological therapy. This add-on strategy with infliximab led to a rapid pain relief and improvement of patient's and physician's global assessments, C-reactive protein/erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and swollen and tender joint counts within 6 weeks. Concomitant use of NSAID and oral corticosteroid was reduced. Corresponding results were documented at 3 months with etanercept, which was more recently approved for the treatment of spondyloarthropathies. Seventy-nine percent of the patients were ASAS 20 responders. A subgroup of AS patients with only axial involvement (n = 46) responded correspondingly. The first biological drug was discontinued in only 7% due to lack of efficacy and in 6% due to adverse events. Anti-TNF agents, often used in combination with DMARDs, appeared to have persistent effectiveness and limited toxicity in a real-life clinical setting in a cohort of Finnish AS patients with severe disease and long disease duration.
TNF inhibitors (TNFi) have been shown to reduce the need for surgery in Crohn's disease, but few studies have examined their effect beyond the first year of treatment.
To conduct a register-based observational cohort study in Sweden 2006-2014 to investigate the risk of bowel resection in bowel surgery naïve TNFi-treated Crohn's disease patients and whether patients on TNFi =12 months are less likely to undergo bowel resection than patients discontinuing treatment before 12 months.
We identified all individuals in Sweden with Crohn's disease through the Swedish National Patient Register 1987-2014 and evaluated the incidence of bowel resection after first ever dispensation of adalimumab or infliximab from 2006 and up to 7 years follow-up.
We identified 1856 Crohn's disease patients who had received TNFi. Among these patients, 90% treatment retention was observed at 6 months after start of TNFi and 65% remained on the drug after 12 months. The cumulative rates of surgery in Crohn's disease patients exposed to TNFi years 1-7 were 7%, 13%, 17%, 20%, 23%, 25% and 28%. Rates of bowel resection were similar between patients with TNFi survival
BACKGROUND: Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists have proved effective as treatment against rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the unresolved issue of whether the use of anti-TNF therapy increases the already elevated risk of lymphoma in RA remains a concern. METHODS: Using the Swedish Biologics Register (ARTIS), the Swedish Cancer Register, pre-existing RA cohorts and cross-linkage with other national health and census registers, a national RA cohort (n = 67,743) was assembled and patients who started anti-TNF therapy between 1998 and July 2006 (n = 6604) were identified. A general population comparator (n = 471,024) was also assembled and the incidence of lymphomas from 1999 to 31 December 2006 was assessed and compared in these individuals. RESULTS: Among the 6604 anti-TNF-treated RA patients, 26 malignant lymphomas were observed during 26,981 person-years of follow-up, which corresponded to a relative risk (RR) of 1.35 (95% CI 0.82 to 2.11) versus anti-TNF-naive RA patients (336 lymphomas during 365,026 person-years) and 2.72 (95% CI 1.82 to 4.08) versus the general population comparator (1568 lymphomas during 3,355,849 person-years). RA patients starting anti-TNF therapy in 1998-2001 accounted for the entire increase in lymphoma risk versus the two comparators. By contrast, RR did not vary significantly by time since start of first treatment or with the accumulated duration of treatment, nor with the type of anti-TNF agent. CONCLUSION: Overall and as used in routine care against RA, TNF antagonists are not associated with any major further increase in the already elevated lymphoma occurrence in RA. Changes in the selection of patients for treatment may influence the observed risk.
To estimate the risk of tuberculosis (TB) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) both with and without exposure to biological therapy and to directly compare the risks between therapies.
Data from the Swedish National Population Registers, Tuberculosis Register and the Swedish Biologics Register were used to conduct a prospective population-based national cohort study (2002-2011). We estimated the rate of incident TB in the general population and in a cohort of biological-naïve and biological-exposed patients diagnosed with RA. Cox models were used to estimate HRs with particular attention to risks by calendar and follow-up time and individual biologics.
Compared to the general population, RA patients not exposed to biologicals had a fourfold increased risk of TB (HR 4.2; 95% CI 2.7 to 6.7), which did not decline over calendar time. In contrast, the risk of TB in the biological-exposed RA population decreased since 2002 compared with biological-naïve; from HR=7.9 (95% CI 3.3 to 18.9) in 2002-2006 to HR=2.4 (95% CI 0.9 to 6.1) in 2007-2011. The HRs for most recent exposure to adalimumab and infliximab compared with etanercept were 3.1 (95% CI 0.8 to 12.5) and 2.7 (95% CI 0.7 to 10.9), respectively, and the HR for etanercept compared with biological-naïve RA was 1.7 (95% CI 0.6 to 4.6).
In the past decade, the risk of TB has decreased among biological-exposed RA patients but remains higher than in biological-naïve RA patients. Most cases of TB in RA occur in biological-naïve RA patients, underscoring the elevated risk also in these patients.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriasis have been linked with insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus (DM). Prior investigations suggest that systemic immunosuppressive drugs may improve insulin resistance and reduce the risk of DM.
To compare the risk of newly recorded DM among participants diagnosed with RA or psoriasis based on use of a variety of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
A retrospective cohort study among 121,280 patients with a diagnosis of either RA or psoriasis on at least 2 visits. The analyses were conducted in the context of 2 large health insurance programs, 1 in Canada and 1 in the United States, using administrative data. The mean follow-up was 5.8 months and began with the first prescription for a DMARD after study eligibility was met. Drug regimens were categorized into 4 mutually exclusive groups: (1) tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors with or without other DMARDs; (2) methotrexate without TNF inhibitors or hydroxychloroquine; (3) hydroxychloroquine without TNF inhibitors or methotrexate; or (4) other nonbiologic DMARDs without TNF inhibitors, methotrexate, or hydroxychloroquine (reference exposure).
Newly recorded DM as evidenced by a new diagnosis of DM with use of a DM-specific medication.
The study cohort consisted of 13,905 participants with 22,493 treatment episodes starting 1 of the categories of DMARD regimens between January 1996 and June 2008. New diabetes cases and respective incidence rates per 1000 person-years were: other nonbiologic DMARDs (55 cases among 3993 treatment episodes; rate, 50.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 47.3-53.2); TNF inhibitors (80 cases among 4623 treatment episodes; rate, 19.7; 95% CI, 19.1-20.3); methotrexate (82 cases among 8195 treatment episodes; rate, 23.8; 95% CI, 23.0-24.6); and hydroxychloroquine (50 cases among 5682 treatment episodes; rate, 22.2; 95% CI, 21.3-23.1). The multivariate adjusted hazard ratios for DM were 0.62 (95% CI, 0.42-0.91) for TNF inhibitors, 0.77 (95% CI, 0.53-1.13) for methotrexate, and 0.54 (95% CI, 0.36-0.80) for hydroxychloroquine compared with other nonbiologic DMARDS.
Among patients with RA or psoriasis, the adjusted risk of DM was lower for individuals starting a TNF inhibitor or hydroxychloroquine compared with initiation of other nonbiologic DMARDs.
Comment In: JAMA. 2011 Jun 22;305(24):2573-421693749
A Cochrane review and network meta-analysis concluded that there is need for more research on adverse effects, including cancer, after treatment with tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a) antagonists and that national registries and large databases would provide relevant sources of data to evaluate these effects.
To investigate whether patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) exposed to TNF-a antagonists were at increased risk of developing cancer.
Nationwide register-based cohort study in Denmark, 1999-2012. Participants were 56,146 patients 15 years or older with IBD identified in the National Patient Registry, of whom 4553 (8.1%) were exposed to TNF-a antagonists. Cancer cases were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry.
Rate ratios (RRs) for incident cancer (overall and site-specific) comparing TNF-a antagonist users and nonusers, estimated using Poisson regression adjusted for age, calendar year, disease duration, propensity scores, and use of other IBD medications.
During 489,433 person-years of follow-up (median, 9.3 years [interquartile range, 4.2-14.0]), 81 of 4553 patients exposed to TNF-a antagonists (1.8%) (median follow-up, 3.7 years [interquartile range, 1.8-6.0]) and 3465 of 51,593 unexposed patients (6.7%) developed cancer, yielding a fully adjusted RR of 1.07 (95% CI, 0.85-1.36). There was no significantly increased risk of cancer in analyses according to time since first TNF-a antagonist exposure (less than 1 year: RR, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.67-1.81]; 1 to less than 2 years: RR, 1.22 [95% CI, 0.77-1.93]; 2 to less than 5 years: RR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.54-1.24]; 5 or more years: RR, 1.33 [95% CI, 0.88-2.03]) and in analyses according to the number of TNF-a antagonist doses received (1 to 3 doses: RR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.71-1.47]; 4 to 7 doses: RR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.55-1.42]; 8 or more doses: RR, 1.29 [95% CI, 0.90-1.85]). No site-specific cancers were in significant excess in fully adjusted models.
In this Danish nationwide study, exposure to TNF-a antagonists among patients with IBD was not associated with an increased risk of cancer over a median follow-up of 3.7 years among those exposed. An increased risk associated with longer-term accumulated doses and follow-up cannot be excluded.
Antitumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) is used for treatment of severe cases of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). However, one-third of the patients do not respond to the treatment. Genetic markers may predict individual response to anti-TNF therapy. Using a candidate gene approach, 39 mainly functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 26 genes regulating inflammation were assessed in 738 prior anti-TNF-naive Danish patients with IBD. The results were analyzed using logistic regression (crude and adjusted for age, gender and smoking status). Nineteen functional polymorphisms that alter the NF?B-mediated inflammatory response (TLR2 (rs3804099, rs11938228, rs1816702, rs4696480), TLR4 (rs5030728, rs1554973), TLR9 (rs187084, rs352139), LY96 (MD-2) (rs11465996), CD14 (rs2569190), MAP3K14 (NIK) (rs7222094)), TNF-a signaling (TNFA (TNF-a) (rs361525), TNFRSF1A (TNFR1) (rs4149570), TNFAIP3(A20) (rs6927172)) and other cytokines regulated by NF?B (IL1B (rs4848306), IL1RN (rs4251961), IL6 (rs10499563), IL17A (rs2275913), IFNG (rs2430561)) were associated with response to anti-TNF therapy among patients with CD, UC or both CD and UC (P ? 0.05). In conclusion, the results suggest that polymorphisms in genes involved in activating NF?B through the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways, genes regulating TNF-a signaling and cytokines regulated by NF?B are important predictors for the response to anti-TNF therapy among patients with IBD. Genetically strong TNF-mediated inflammatory response was associated with beneficial response. In addition, the cytokines IL-1?, IL-6 and IFN-? may be potential targets for treating patients with IBD who do not respond to anti-TNF therapy. These findings should be examined in independent cohorts before these results are applied in a clinical setting.
Biological treatments in pediatric IBD In Sweden, there are an estimated 1?500 pediatric IBD patients. We sent out a survey regarding the use of biological treatments in pediatric IBD to pediatric gastroenterologists in Sweden. Of 1?098 recorded IBD patients, 17% had ongoing treatment with biological drugs. The drugs used were almost exclusively infliximab and adalimumab, i.e. anti-TNF-alpha. Use of biologics varied among responders. Anaphylactic reactions and other types of infusion reactions were the most frequent side effects.