We measured activity and content of cathepsin B in tumor tissues, liver, and spleen in mice with Lewis adenocarcinoma and LS-lymphosarcoma. Cathepsin B activity in Lewis adenocarcinoma cells was lower than in LS-lymphosarcoma cells, which was probably related to differences in their metastatic properties. Antitumor therapy increased activity and content of cathepsin B in tumor tissues. Changes in the content and activity of cathepsin B in tumor tissues can serve as a prognostic criterion for tumor regression during therapy. Cathepsin B is probably involved in apoptosis of tumor cells during chemotherapy of lymphosarcoma-LS with cyclophosphamide.
BACKGROUND: Adult height and insulin are thought to modify the development of breast cancer. However, little is known about the association between height and 17beta-estradiol, a key factor in breast carcinogenesis, and whether insulin modifies such an association. METHODS: Among 204 healthy women, ages 25 to 35 years, who participated in the Energy Balance and Breast Cancer Aspect I study, adult height (in centimeters) and fasting serum concentrations of insulin (pmol/L) were measured. 17beta-Estradiol concentrations were measured in daily saliva samples throughout an entire menstrual cycle through RIA. Age and multivariate linear regression models were used to study the association between adult height and 17beta-estradiol levels throughout an entire menstrual cycle and whether serum levels of fasting insulin may modify such an association. RESULTS: The women had a mean age of 30.7 years, adult height of 166.9 cm, and serum insulin of 85.7 pmol/L. For each increase of one SD in insulin levels in the upper tertile of adult height, the adjusted level of 17beta-estradiol increased by 3.1 pmol/L (95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.2), equivalent to a 17.3% higher mean average concentration of 17beta-estradiol. Women with an adult height > or =170 cm (upper tertile) and insulin levels >101 pmol/L (upper quartile) experienced, on average, 41% higher 17beta-estradiol levels throughout the entire menstrual cycle compared with women with the same adult height and insulin levels
Alpha B-crystallin was found to be an independent prognostic marker for poor prognosis in oral cavity tumours. For oropharyngeal cancer, alpha B-crystallin had no prognostic value.
The aim of this study was to see if earlier findings of alpha B-crystallin as an independent prognostic marker, and SPARC/osteonectin, PAI-1 and uPA as a prognostic combination for poor outcome in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck could be confirmed in a new set of tumours.
In a consecutive series of patients, assessed and primarily treated at a tertiary referral centre, histological sections from 55 patients with oral and SCC (OOPHSSC) with complete clinical data and follow-up were obtained. Oral and oropharyngeal tumours were studied separately. Immunohistochemical detection of alpha B-crystallin, SPARC/osteonectin, PAI-1 and uPA expression was performed.
Thirty-five patients had an oral tumour and 20 patients an oropharyngeal tumour. Twenty-five oral tumours stained negatively and 10 positively for alpha B-crystallin. For oropharyngeal tumours the figures were 15 negatively and 5 positively. Median disease-specific survival (DSS) for both sites was 33.8 and 11.9 months, for negative and positive alpha B-crystallin staining, respectively (p = 0.046). For the oral cavity, median DSS was 27.3 months for negative tumours and 7.5 months for positive tumours (p = 0.012). Corresponding figures for oropharyngeal tumours were 33.8 and 34.1 months (p = 0.95). Thus, significance in survival was only found in oral cavity tumours. In multivariate analyses there were no significant differences in DSS in the oropharyngeal group when adjusted for tumour size (T status) and presence of neck node metastasis (N status). In the oral cavity group, the significantly better DSS for negative tumours became even stronger when adjusted for T and N status. No statistical difference was found in DSS between positive and negative staining for SPARC/osteonectin, PAI-1 or uPA.
AIMS: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression/amplification is implicated in the development of various solid tumour types. Validated methods and scoring systems for evaluating HER2 status exist in breast cancer, but not in gastric cancer. The aim was to establish a HER2 scoring system for gastric cancer to identify suitable patients for enrollment in a trial of trastuzumab (Herceptin) in advanced metastatic gastric cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer samples were tested for HER2 status using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) pharmDxt kit (Dako Denmark A/S). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed using the HercepTest (Dako). Concordance between FISH and IHC was 93.5% in 168 evaluable samples. Eleven samples were scored as FISH+ but IHC- or equivocal. CONCLUSIONS: IHC/FISH discrepancies were attributed to basolateral membranous immunoreactivity of glandular cells resulting in incomplete membranous reactivity and/or a higher rate of tumour heterogeneity in gastric cancer compared with breast cancer. With modifications to the IHC scoring system, the HercepTest is considered valid for the identification of HER2+ gastric tumours for this clinical trial. Correlation of HER2 scores with clinical outcomes will be needed to determine which patients might benefit from trastuzumab therapy.
Astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme) is the most common and most malignant tumor of the central nervous system and is currently noncurable. Here, we have examined a population-based cohort of 47 patients with grade IV astrocytoma, who underwent tumor surgery at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Sweden and who survived after surgery for less than 200 days (short survivors, 28 patients) and more than 500 days (long survivors, 19 patients). For each tumor, we ascertained information on patient age, sex, tumor location, oncological treatment, and survival after surgery. The analysis of the tumor volume and the extent of tumor resection (incomplete versus complete resection of the macroscopic tumor) was made retrospectively from the preoperative radiological investigations and, when available, also from postoperative radiology. We performed semiquantitative immunohistochemical evaluation of the presence of intermediate filament (nanofilament) proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, nestin, and synemin in tumor cells. The intermediate filament system helps cells and tissues to cope with various types of stress, and thus, it might affect the malignant potential of grade IV astrocytoma. We propose a subclassification of astrocytomas grade IV with respect to the expression of the intermediate filament proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, nestin, and synemin, namely, type A, B, and C. Our results suggest that the expression of the intermediate filament proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, nestin, and synemin is coregulated in grade IV astrocytomas. The expression patterns of the intermediate filament proteins in astrocytoma type A, B, and C might have biological and clinical significance.
Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Unit, School of Cancer, Enabling Sciences and Technology, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX, UK.
The emergence of automated image analysis algorithms has aided the enumeration, quantification, and immunohistochemical analyses of tumor cells in both whole section and tissue microarray samples. To date, the focus of such algorithms in the breast cancer setting has been on traditional markers in the common invasive ductal carcinoma subtype. Here, we aimed to optimize and validate an automated analysis of the cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 in a large collection of invasive lobular carcinoma and relate its expression to clinicopathologic data. The image analysis algorithm was trained to optimally match manual scoring of cyclin D1 protein expression in a subset of invasive lobular carcinoma tissue microarray cores. The algorithm was capable of distinguishing cyclin D1-positive cells and illustrated high correlation with traditional manual scoring (?=0.63). It was then applied to our entire cohort of 483 patients, with subsequent statistical comparisons to clinical data. We found no correlation between cyclin D1 expression and tumor size, grade, and lymph node status. However, overexpression of the protein was associated with reduced recurrence-free survival (P=.029), as was positive nodal status (P
In studies concerning the interaction of B-CLL cells and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), we encountered one patient whose cells had several unusual properties. In addition to the B-cell markers, the CLL cells expressed the exclusive T-cell markers CD3 and CD8 and carried a translocation t(18,22)(q21;q11), involving the bcl-2 and Ig lambda loci. The patient represents the 4th reported CLL case with this translocation. The CLL cells could be infected and immortalized by the indigenous and by the prototype B958 virus in vitro. The T-cell markers were not detectable on the established lines. In all experiments the immortalized lines originated from the CLL cells. Their preferential emergence over virus-infected normal B cells may be coupled to the high expression of the bcl-2 gene due to the translocation. In spite of the sensitivity of CLL cells to EBV infection in vitro, no EBNA-positive cells were detected in the ex vivo population. In vitro, we could generate cytotoxic function in T-lymphocyte cultures which acted on autologous EBV-infected CLL cells. Therefore we assume that if such cells emerged in vivo they were eliminated by the T-cell response.
To evaluate the biological roles and prognostic significance of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-mediating transcription factors (TFs) Twist, ZEB1 and Slug in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). EMT has been shown to enhance solid tumour metastasis, invasion, and proliferation.
Expression of Twist, ZEB1 and Slug was evaluated immunohistochemically in eight samples from reactive lymphoid tissues and in diagnostic samples from 102 DLBCL patients treated with curative intent with R-CHOP-type chemotherapy. ZEB1 and Slug expression correlated with adverse disease presentation. However, cytoplasmic Slug expression was linked to a favourable disease outcome, whereas nuclear expression of ZEB1 indicated an adverse outcome.
This study shows that an EMT-like process occurs in lymphomas. Of the TFs investigated, ZEB1 seems to be the main one associated with adverse clinical presentation and clinical outcome. Surprisingly, Slug expression in cytoplasm was linked to a favourable prognosis. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether inhibition of ZEB1 could serve as a therapeutic target.
Effective prevention of cancer requires sensitive early warning systems to identify groups, and ultimately individuals, who are at high risk of developing cancer and to accurately estimate the magnitude of their risk. Incorporated with molecular epidemiologic studies, biologic markers have the potential to provide quantitative human data on the biologically effective dose of carcinogens, resultant molecular effects, and genetic/acquired factors that modulate these effects. Clearly, this information is directly relevant to risk identification and to risk quantification.
Emerging data indicate an important role for biopsies of clinically/radiologically defined breast cancer 'recurrences'. The present study investigates tumour related events (relapses, other malignancies, benign conditions) after a primary breast cancer diagnosis.
The cohort includes 2102 women, representing all patients, with primary invasive breast cancer during 2000-2011 in the county of Värmland, Sweden. A comparative analysis of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and proliferation (Ki67) between the primary tumour and the relapse was performed and related to outcome.
With a mean follow-up time of 4.8 years, 1060 out of 2102 patients have had a biopsy taken after the initial breast cancer diagnosis demonstrating 177 recurrences, 93 other malignancies (colorectal, lung, skin), 40 cancer in situ (skin, breast) and 857 benign lesions. Approximately 70% (177 out of 245) of all cases of relapsed breast cancer underwent a biopsy during this time period. For patients with recurrences, ER (n=127), PR (n=101), HER2 (n=73) and Ki67 (n=55) status in both primary tumour and the corresponding relapse were determined. The discordance of receptor status was 14.2%, 39.6%, 9.6% and 36.3%, respectively. Loss of ER or PR in the relapse resulted in a significant increased risk of death (hazard ratio (HR) 3.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.65-7.94) and (HR 2.34; 95% CI, 1.01-5.47) compared with patients with stable ER or PR positive tumours. The proportion of patients losing ER was bigger in the group treated with endocrine therapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy, 16.7% and 13.3%, respectively, compared with the group treated with chemotherapy alone or that which received no treatment 4.3% and 7.7%, respectively.
Discordance of biomarkers between the primary tumour and the corresponding relapse was seen in 10-40% of the patients, adjuvant therapies seem to drive clonal selections. Patients with tumours losing ER or PR during progression have worse survival compared with patients with retained receptor expression.