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Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in an immigrant population: evidence against a founder effect.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature181434
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Mar 1;159(5):507-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1-2004
Author
Sophie Kulaga
Marcel Behr
Dao Nguyen
Jacquelyn Brinkman
Jennifer Westley
Dick Menzies
Paul Brassard
Terry Tannenbaum
Louise Thibert
Jean-François Boivin
Lawrence Joseph
Kevin Schwartzman
Author Affiliation
Joint Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Mar 1;159(5):507-13
Date
Mar-1-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
DNA Fingerprinting
DNA, Bacterial - analysis
Emigration and Immigration
Female
Genetic Variation
Haiti - ethnology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mycobacterium tuberculosis - genetics - isolation & purification
Quebec - epidemiology
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary - epidemiology - etiology
Abstract
Population-based studies have used DNA typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis organisms to estimate the extent of ongoing tuberculosis transmission in various communities and to characterize associated risk factors. The finding of matched DNA "fingerprints" among isolates from an immigrant subgroup may reflect transmission in the adopted country but could also reflect limited diversity among M. tuberculosis organisms within that immigrant community. The authors sought to determine which hypothesis is more likely to explain the high frequency of matched isolates among Haitian-born tuberculosis patients in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The authors determined the number of different bacterial genotypes in this community as compared with other foreign-born tuberculosis patients and applied a recently described measure of genetic similarity between M. tuberculosis organisms ("genetic distance"). Among 76 Haitian-born tuberculosis patients diagnosed during 1996-1998, the authors identified 47 distinct genotypes on the basis of standard IS6110 DNA typing and categorical analysis. In genetic distance analysis, these 47 genotypes showed as great a genetic diversity as that observed among the 191 distinct genotypes identified in 216 other foreign-born tuberculosis patients. A mycobacterial "founder effect" is unlikely to account for the high proportion of shared isolates among Haitian-born Montrealers. Recent transmission remains the most likely explanation.
PubMed ID
14977647 View in PubMed
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Dwellings, crowding, and tuberculosis in Montreal.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature170682
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2006 Jul;63(2):501-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2006
Author
Ian Wanyeki
Sherry Olson
Paul Brassard
Dick Menzies
Nancy Ross
Marcel Behr
Kevin Schwartzman
Author Affiliation
Respiratory Epidemiology Unit, McGill University, Canada. ian.wanyeki@mail.mcgill.ca
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2006 Jul;63(2):501-11
Date
Jul-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Crowding
Emigration and Immigration - statistics & numerical data
Geographic Information Systems
Humans
Quebec - epidemiology
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary - epidemiology
Abstract
The association of tuberculosis (TB) with poverty has long been recognized, yet it may reflect not only characteristics of poor individuals, but also housing and neighborhood features which promote airborne spread. We sought to determine whether dwelling and building features, residential density and crowding are independently associated with TB occurrence in a low-incidence setting. We used residential addresses to geocode active TB cases reported in Montreal in 1996-2000. These "case dwellings" were linked to the municipal dwelling geodatabase from 2000, and to Canadian census data from 1996. We compared them with randomly selected Montreal dwellings ("controls," in a 1:10 ratio), using the same data sources. From multivariate logistic regression, the 595 case dwellings were more likely than the 5950 control dwellings to be in buildings >5 stories tall (adjusted odds ratios [OR] 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0-2.5), constructed since 1970 (adjusted OR 2.5; 1.8-3.6), in the lowest quartile for resale valuation (adjusted OR 1.3; 1.0-1.6), and on blocks where lot coverage exceeded the median value (adjusted OR 1.3; 1.0-1.6). Case dwellings were also more often found in census tracts with more persons per room, and a higher proportion of inhabitants who had arrived in Canada within the last 5 years. We conclude that dwelling and building features-notably dwellings in taller and new buildings, with lower resale value, and dwellings on blocks with high residential density-as well as crowding, were associated with TB occurrence, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors.
PubMed ID
16480805 View in PubMed
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Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in Montreal.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature188802
Source
CMAJ. 2002 Aug 20;167(4):353-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-20-2002
Author
Sophie Kulaga
Marcel Behr
Kenneth Musana
Jacquelyn Brinkman
Dick Menzies
Paul Brassard
Dennis Kunimoto
Terry-Nan Tannenbaum
Louise Thibert
Lawrence Joseph
Jean-Francois Boivin
Kevin Schwartzman
Source
CMAJ. 2002 Aug 20;167(4):353-4
Date
Aug-20-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
DNA Fingerprinting
DNA, Bacterial - genetics
Emigration and Immigration - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Molecular Epidemiology - methods
Mycobacterium tuberculosis - genetics
Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
Population Surveillance - methods
Quebec - epidemiology
Recurrence
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data
Notes
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Comment In: CMAJ. 2002 Aug 20;167(4):355-612197689
PubMed ID
12197688 View in PubMed
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Widespread pyrazinamide-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis family in a low-incidence setting.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature184655
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Jul;41(7):2878-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2003
Author
Dao Nguyen
Paul Brassard
Jennifer Westley
Louise Thibert
Melanie Proulx
Kevin Henry
Kevin Schwartzman
Dick Menzies
Marcel A Behr
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Jul;41(7):2878-83
Date
Jul-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Amidohydrolases - genetics
Antitubercular Agents - pharmacology
Case-Control Studies
DNA Transposable Elements
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Genotype
Humans
Incidence
Mutation
Mycobacterium tuberculosis - drug effects - genetics
Oligonucleotides - analysis
Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
Pyrazinamide - pharmacology
Quebec - epidemiology
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary - epidemiology - microbiology
Abstract
An unusually high prevalence of pyrazinamide (PZA) monoresistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been observed in Quebec. In the absence of a recognized outbreak, we hypothesized that these isolates most likely represented reactivation of an old endemic strain in this low-incidence area. A case-control study of 77 PZA-resistant isolates with a specific Quebec mutation and 253 PZA-susceptible control M. tuberculosis isolates was undertaken. By molecular analysis, all 77 case isolates shared a unique mutation profile in the pncA gene which was not present in control isolates. While control isolates manifested diverse IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns, spoligotypes, and major genetic groups, case isolates had similar but nonidentical IS6110 RFLP patterns, had common spoligotypes, and were confined to one major genetic group, suggesting a common clonal ancestor. By epidemiologic and geographic analyses, however, there were no significant differences between the cases and the controls. We conclude that a clonally related family of PZA-monoresistant M. tuberculosis isolates in Quebec represents historic rather than recent transmission.
Notes
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PubMed ID
12843016 View in PubMed
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