The paper analyzes the incidence of tuberculous exudative pleurisy (TEP) in children and adolescents in 30 administrative subjects of 7 Russian Federal Okrugs in 1992-2000. TEP was detected in 957 individuals, including 451 (5.3%) children and 506 (11.8%) adolescents. TEP was detected mainly on referral. Control examinations (tuberculin diagnosis, fluorography, contact examination) identified 163 patients with TEP. Analyzing the sex-age-specific structure in patients with TEP established that the boys (n = 572 (59.8%)) were ill more frequently than the girls (386 (40.2%)). Analyses of age-related changes in TEP revealed a gradual increase in its incidence from to 1 to 17 years of age. The analysis made in 5 Russian Federal Okrugs indicated that in children and adolescents, TEP was not recorded in all cases. In adults, the incidence of TEP corresponded to the total morbidity. The authors have established that this mismatch is due to the misinterpretation of the disease when TEP was not notified as an individual nosological entity, but it was interpreted as a concomitant process in different tuberculous lesions in the lung tissue, intrathoracic lymph nodes, and other organs.