An outbreak of tuberculosis in pigs and cattle caused by Mycobacterium africanum produced lesions in the pigs similar to those caused by M tuberculosis, M bovis and M avium, with caseation in the lymph nodes of the head and in the jejunal lymph nodes. Bacteriological examination of the dysgonic mycobacteria isolated showed that they were M africanum I. The intradermal tuberculin test was very reliable in pigs, differentiating between mammalian and avian reactions, and the results of the test were in accordance with the lesions found at meat inspection. No clinical signs were observed during the outbreak, and the infection was neither serious nor progressive. There were no lesions in the tuberculin-positive cattle. The source of the infection remains unknown.
Tuberculosis is a zoonosis caused by Mycobacterium spp. International trade in cattle is regulated with respect to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) but not Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), despite that cattle can become infected with both species. In this study we estimated the annual probability (PIntro) of introducing M. tuberculosis into the Danish cattle population, by the import of cattle and/or by immigrants working in Danish cattle herds. Data from 2013 with date, number, and origin of imported live cattle were obtained from the Danish cattle database. Information on immigrants working in Danish cattle herds was obtained through a questionnaire sent to Danish cattle farmers. The gained inputs were fed into three stochastic scenario trees to assess the PIntro for the current and alternative test-and-manage strategies, such as testing of imported animals and/or testing immigrant workers with the tuberculin skin test. We considered the population of Danish farmers and practitioners free of tuberculosis, because in Denmark, the incidence of the disease in humans is low and primarily related to immigrants and socially disadvantaged people. The median annual probability of introducing M. tuberculosis into the Danish cattle population due to imported live cattle was 0.008% (90% P.I.: 0.0007%; 0.03%), while the probability due to immigrant workers was 4.1% (90% P.I.: 0.8%; 12.1%). The median combined probability (PIntro) due to imported cattle plus workers was 4.1% (90% P.I.: 0.8%; 12.6%). Hence, on average at least one introduction each 24 (90% P.I.: 8; 125) years could be expected. Imported live cattle appeared to play a marginal role on the overall annual PIntro, because they represented only approximately 0.2% of the median annual probability. By testing immigrant workers the overall annual PIntro could be reduced to 0.2% (90% P.I.: 0.04%; 0.7%). Thus, testing of immigrant workers could be considered as a risk mitigation strategy to markedly reduce the likelihood of introducing M. tuberculosis into the Danish cattle population, if the risk is considered unacceptable by the veterinary public health authorities.
Denmark has been recognized as officially free (OTF) from bovine tuberculosis (bTB) since 1980. In this study, we estimated the annual probability (PIntro) of introducing Mycobacterium bovis into the Danish cattle population, through (a) imports of cattle and (b) foreign personnel working in Danish cattle herds. Data from 2000 to 2013 with date, number and origin of imported live cattle were obtained from the Danish Cattle Federation. Information on immigrants working in Danish cattle herds was obtained through a questionnaire sent by email to a sample of Danish cattle farmers (N=460). Inputs obtained from data analysis, expert opinion, the questionnaire and literature were fed into three stochastic scenario tree models used to simulate the effect of import trade patterns, and contact between immigrant workers and cattle. We also investigated the opportunity of testing animals imported from OTF countries by tuberculin skin test and animals from non-OTF countries by interferon-? test (IFN-?), exemplified by using year 2009 where the number of imported animals was higher than usual. Results showed that PIntro is driven mainly by importation of live cattle. The combined median annual probability of introducing M. bovis into the Danish cattle population by either imported live cattle or infectious immigrant workers, ranged from 0.3% (90% prediction interval (P.I.): 0.04%:1.4%) in 2001 to 4.9% (90% P.I.: 0.6%; 19.2%) in 2009. The median of the median PIntro estimates from the 14 years was 0.7% (median of 90% P.I.: 0.08%; 3.5%). Hence, on average, at least one introduction each 143 years could be expected, if the annual number of imported animals does not change remarkably in the future. If the number of imported animals increases, compared to the years we analyzed, additional testing of imported cattle might be considered. For example, in 2009, PIntro would have been reduced from 4.9% to 0.8% (90% P.I.: 0.1%; 4.7%) if animals from OTF countries had been tested with the tuberculin skin test and animals from non-OTF countries had been tested with the IFN-? test. The presented model could be used easily in other countries with similar bTB status to Denmark, where wildlife represents a negligible probability of infection for domestic cattle and where the imported live cattle represent the main pathway of bTB introduction into the local cattle population.
Cattle tuberculosis was totally eradicated in Sweden 20 years ago. Twelve cases of bovine tuberculosis in man were reported in 1974 and 1975. All cases lived for many years in areas where cattle tuberculosis had previously been common. No recent source of infection could be demonstrated. These findings are in accordance with an exacerbation of a distant infection.
After processing the dynamic series of tuberculosis morbidity in the population of the Novosibirsk region by the smooth component methods, two major constituents were defined in morbidity dynamics. In total, they make up about half the total variability of tuberculosis morbidity. The first constituent is due to socioeconomic causes that are common for the whole region. The second one shows rather evident 10-year fluctuations. The same 10-year fluctuations are observed in the dynamics of tuberculosis morbidity among the cattle of the Novosibirsk region by out-stripping that in the population in the northern and eastern areas by 1-3 years.