To examine the effect of recommendations to reduce the cesarean section rate issued by the National Consensus Conference on Aspects of Cesarean Birth in 1986 on obstetric practices and to identify current patient factors that predict cesarean section.
Descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study.
A tertiary care perinatal referral centre and a general teaching hospital with a level 2 nursery in Hamilton, Ont.
All patients who gave birth at the two hospitals in 1982 (4121 women) and 1990 (4431).
Cesarean section rates and indications and predictors of cesarean section.
Although a trial of vaginal delivery after cesarean section was offered 93% more often in 1990 than in 1982 (p = 0.0002), the rate of vaginal delivery increased only 2.6%, for a reduction of 8.7% in the total cesarean section rate and of 15% in the repeat cesarean section rate. The incidence rate and treatment of dystocia did not change. The rate of cesarean section for breech presentation remained unchanged, and fetal distress was rarely confirmed with pH measurement in scalp blood before cesarean section. The most important predictors of cesarean section in 1990 were previous cesarean section and labour induction. For the nulliparous women and the multiparous women with no previous cesarean section labour induction was the most important predictor.
The rate at which patients with previous cesarean section are offered a trial of vaginal delivery has increased significantly since 1982; however, the total and repeat cesarean section rates have not decreased proportionally. Induction of labour is currently the most important correctable predictor of cesarean section. The active management of dystocia, efforts to increase the rate of vaginal breech delivery and appropriate methods to diagnose fetal distress need to be improved; such improvements should reduce the cesarean section rate further.
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A 40% random sample of Ontario's obstetricians were asked to respond to hypothetical scenarios for previous cesarean section, breech presentation and dystocia, and to describe their practice patterns. Their responses confirmed findings from other studies, which reported differences between physicians' responses to hypothetical cases and their actual practice. In this study, 18% chose a cesarean section for the hypothetical case of a patient who had previously undergone cesarean section and 2% chose a cesarean section for the hypothetical case of breech presentation. However, in practice, the obstetricians reported that they do cesarean section on 71% of their previous section patients and on 57% of their breech patients. Physicians in teaching hospitals were less likely than those in community hospitals to choose cesarean section for a woman who had previously undergone cesarean section both hypothetically and in practice. For breech presentation, no difference was found. The discrepancy between responses to the hypothetical cases and practice patterns could not be attributed to the absence of anesthesia services or to restrictive hospital policies.
This study was undertaken to assess the safety of trial of labor after previous cesarean delivery.
Retrospective cohort study of 308,755 Canadian women with previous cesarean delivery between 1988 and 2000. Occurrences of in-hospital maternal death, uterine rupture, and other severe maternal morbidity were compared between women with a trial of labor and those with an elective cesarean section.
Rates of uterine rupture (0.65%), transfusion (0.19%), and hysterectomy (0.10%) were significantly higher in the trial-of-labor group. Maternal in-hospital death rate, however, was lower in the trial-of-labor group (1.6 per 100,000) than in the elective cesarean section group (5.6 per 100,000). The association between trial of labor and uterine rupture was stronger in low volume ( or =500 births per year) obstetric units.
Trial of labor is associated with increased risk of uterine rupture, but elective cesarean section may increase the risk of maternal death.
The number of women postponing childbirth until an advanced age is increasing. Our aim was to study the outcome of labor in nulliparous women =40 years, compared with women 25-29 years, after both spontaneous onset and induction of labor.
The nationwide population-based Swedish Medical Birth Register was used to study the perinatal outcome in nulliparous women with a singleton, term (gestational weeks 37-44), live fetus in cephalic presentation and a planned vaginal delivery from 1992 to 2011. We included 7796 nulliparous women =40 years and 264 262 nulliparous women 25-29 years. Prevalence and risk of intrapartum cesarean section, operative vaginal delivery, obstetric anal sphincter injury and a 5-minute Apgar score
We carried out a chart review study to determine the rate of diagnosis of dystocia (abnormal progress) and the use of cesarean section to treat dystocia among 3887 primiparous women who gave birth to a single baby in the vertex presentation at four hospitals in Ottawa-Carleton in 1984. Of the 3740 women who had some labour 1127 (30.1%) were given a diagnosis of dystocia. Cesarean section for dystocia was done during all phases of labour (41% of procedures in the latent phase, 38% in the active phase and 21% in the second stage). The cesarean section rate varied among the hospitals from 11.8% to 19.6%. A total of 75% of the cesarean sections were for dystocia, disproportion or failed induction. The findings suggest that cesarean section is being done for disproportion without a trial of labour beyond the latent phase and for dystocia in the absence of fetal distress. If these practices were modified the cesarean section rate could be reduced from 16% to about 8%, the rate found in some other centres and that observed in Canada in the early 1970s.
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We sought to study the effects of prior vaginal delivery or prior vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC) on the success of a trial of labor after a cesarean delivery.
An observational study of patients who underwent a trial of labor after a single low-transverse cesarean delivery. Patients with a previous cesarean delivery and no vaginal birth were compared with patients with a single vaginal delivery before or after the previous cesarean delivery. The rates of successful VBAC, uterine rupture, and scar dehiscence were analyzed. Multivariable regression was performed to adjust for confounding variables.
Of 2,204 patients, 1,685 (76.4%) had a previous cesarean delivery and no vaginal delivery, 198 (9.0%) had a vaginal delivery before the cesarean delivery, and 321 (14.6%) had a prior VBAC. The rate of successful trial of labor was 70.1%, 81.8%, and 93.1%, respectively (P
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to study the impact of labor onset and delivery mode on the risk of severe postpartum hemorrhage. STUDY DESIGN: This was a population-based study of 307,415 mothers who were registered in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway from 1999-2004. RESULTS: Severe postpartum hemorrhage occurred in 1.1% of all mothers and in 2.1% of those mothers with previous cesarean section delivery (CS). Compared with spontaneous labor, hemorrhage risk was higher for induction (odds ratio [OR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56-1.88) and prelabor CS (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.84-2.29). The risk was 55% higher for emergency CS and half that for vaginal deliveries (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.43-0.53), compared with prelabor CS. The highest risk was for emergency CS after induction in mothers with previous CS (OR, 6.57; 95% CI, 4.25-10.13), compared with spontaneous vaginal delivery in mothers with no previous CS. CONCLUSION: Induction and prelabor CS should be practiced with caution because of the increased risk of severe postpartum hemorrhage.
To determine (a) the proportion of women undergoing elective repeat cesarean section without a trial of labour who were eligible for such a trial by the 1986 guidelines of the panel of the National Consensus Conference on Aspects of Cesarean Birth, (b) whether vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) was discussed with these women and (c) the reasons cited for not having a trial of labour.
Level 2 perinatal care centre in a general teaching hospital.
All 313 women with a history of previous cesarean section who gave birth at the centre during 1989.
Only 93 (30%) of the 313 women underwent a trial of labour. According to the 1986 guidelines 71% were eligible. A further 13% would have been eligible according to the revised 1991 guidelines. Of the 220 women who underwent elective repeat cesarean section, only 24 (11%) had a discussion of VBAC noted in their hospital charts. However, of all 117 patients whose charts indicated discussion of VBAC 93 (79%) chose to try it. Most of the women had either questionable indications or no indication noted for undergoing repeat cesarean section.
Most of the women who underwent repeat cesarean section were eligible for a trial of labour. However, few charts noted a discussion of VBAC. Further physician and patient education is necessary to promote the appropriate use of VBAC and repeat cesarean section.
Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Centre de recherche du Centre Hospitalier universitaire de Québec (CRCHUQ), Université Laval, Quebec, QC, Canada. email@example.com
The objective was to compare national guidelines regarding vaginal birth after cesarean. Along with the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists practice bulletin, guidelines from the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and the Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada were reviewed and compared. Although the 3 organizations agree on most of the risk factors for uterine rupture and failed vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC), there were some variances in the recommendations to women with 2 previous cesareans and those who required oxytocin augmentation. A disagreement was also present in regard to the availability and requirement of resources to allow a trial of labor after a previous cesarean. Although concerns could be raised about how the literature is synthesized, the 3 organizations recognized the potential biases in published reports and the lack of randomized trials.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Canadian Institutes of Health Research Group in Fetal and Neonatal Health and Development, St. Joseph's Health Care, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
The purpose of this study was to determine risk assessments for a spectrum of neonatal outcomes with elective cesarean delivery versus a trial of labor for previous cesarean section and otherwise healthy patients who deliver at term.
The perinatal/neonatal database of St. Joseph's Health Care, London, Ontario, Canada, was used to obtain the umbilical cord pH and base excess values, incidence of adverse neonatal outcomes, and patient demographics for all term (> or =37 weeks of gestation), singleton, liveborn, or intrapartum demise infants with no major anomalies who were delivered between January 1992 and March 2002 (n = 33,709 infants). Patient groupings (all patient, patient with previous cesarean delivery, and low-risk patient) with no labor versus labor were studied by a comparison of mean values/incidences for those neonatal outcomes that were available from the database with the use of linear and logistic regression analysis and controlling for potentially confounding variables.
Labor was associated with a small drop in umbilical artery pH from approximately 7.27 to 7.25 and base excess from approximately -3.1 to -5.4 mmol/L, but this was generally well tolerated, with no difference in the incidence of 5-minute Apgar scores of