OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of continuous combined hormone replacement therapy (ccHRT) with estradiol valerate/medroxyprogesterone acetate (E(2)V/MPA) over nine years and at follow-up one year after discontinuation. Study design: A total of 419 women were randomized to one of four treatments: once-daily 1 mg E2V/2.5 mg MPA (1 + 2.5 group); 1 mg E2V/5 mg MPA daily (1 + 5 group); 2 mg E2V/2.5 mg MPA daily (2 + 2.5 group); 2 mg E2V/5 mg MPA daily (2 + 5 group) (Indivina, Orion Pharma). For the last six months, all received the 1 + 2.5 dosage. The 2 + 2.5 dosage was discontinued at the end of year 7. A total of 198 women continued after year 7. RESULTS: Annualized percentage rates for cardiovascular events [corrected] and endometrial cancers [corrected] were below national rates for Finland and those reported for the Women's Health Initiative. There were no serious events with the 1 + 2.5 dosage or after ccHRT discontinuation. Climacteric symptoms remained significantly below baseline values after dosage reduction; some symptoms recurred after discontinuation of ccHRT. HRQOL ratings improved with ccHRT, irrespective of dosage, including depressed mood, anxiety, health perception and sexual interest. Scores on a scale assessing daily functioning and enjoyment (Q-LES-Q) improved from year 7 to year 9. They deteriorated during follow-up in women not continuing ccHRT. CONCLUSIONS: Lower dosages of HRT were as effective as higher doses in improving climacteric symptoms and HRQOL ratings and had fewer safety concerns. Following discontinuation of ccHRT, patient satisfaction was variable, with 15% electing to continue or restart HRT and 7% resuming at follow-up. This supports the need for an individualized approach to therapy recommendations.
To assess the accuracy of computed tomography in diagnosing acute appendicitis with a special reference to radiologist experience.
Data were collected prospectively in our randomized controlled trial comparing surgery and antibiotic treatment for uncomplicated acute appendicitis (APPAC trial, NCT01022567). We evaluated 1065 patients who underwent computed tomography for suspected appendicitis. The on-call radiologist preoperatively analyzed these computed tomography images. In this study, the radiologists were divided into experienced (consultants) and inexperienced (residents) ones, and the comparison of interpretations was made between these two radiologist groups.
Out of the 1065 patients, 714 had acute appendicitis and 351 had other or no diagnosis on computed tomography. There were 700 true-positive, 327 true-negative, 14 false-positive, and 24 false-negative cases. The sensitivity and the specificity of computed tomography were 96.7% (95% confidence interval, 95.1-97.8) and 95.9% (95% confidence interval, 93.2-97.5), respectively. The rate of false computed tomography diagnosis was 4.2% for experienced consultant radiologists and 2.2% for inexperienced resident radiologists (p?=?0.071). Thus, the experience of the radiologist had no effect on the accuracy of computed tomography diagnosis.
The accuracy of computed tomography in diagnosing acute appendicitis was high. The experience of the radiologist did not improve the diagnostic accuracy. The results emphasize the role of computed tomography as an accurate modality in daily routine diagnostics for acute appendicitis in all clinical emergency settings.
Loracarbef, which is the first agent of the carbacephem class of beta-lactam antibiotics to be developed, provides good activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria. A single-blinded, randomized, parallel clinical trial in 10 centers in the United States compared the efficacy and safety of loracarbef with that of amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium in the treatment of acute bacterial maxillary sinusitis. A 7-10-day regimen of loracarbef (400 mg twice daily) was as effective as amoxicillin/clavulanate (500/125 mg three times a day) and resulted in somewhat fewer side effects. The results of a European trial in Sweden, Finland, and Iceland showed that loracarbef was clinically more effective than doxycycline in the treatment of acute bacterial maxillary sinusitis.
The population of Finland is ageing fast, and acute cholecystitis is common among elderly people. Because the treatment options have changed greatly since the late 1980's, we wanted to find out whether the active treatment policy nowadays used in our hospital has some effects on operability, morbidity, mortality and the duration of the in-patient period. The numerous serious illnesses of elderly people that cause considerable morbidity and mortality underlines the importance of risk stratification, and clinical variables were therefore also tested for their ability to predict the probability of morbidity and mortality.
Two hundred and eighteen patients aged over 75 years, 92 patients during the 5-year period 1988-1992 (Period I) and 126 patients during the 5-year period 1998-2002 (Period II) had been admitted into our hospital for acute cholecystitis, and they were identified from a computer database. During these two periods, different treatment strategies were used. The clinical data were reviewed from the database and the patient records.
The active use of ERCP and percutaneous cholecystostomy during Period II decreased the number of all operations and emergency operations. Only six of the 43 patients who underwent early cholecystostomy were later scheduled for cholecystectomy. Postoperative morbidity did not differ between the two periods, and stepwise logistic regression analysis showed obesity to be an independent predictor of morbidity. Overall mortality was 8% during period I and 6% during period II, and of the clinical variables, underlying lung disease, malnutrition, pericholecystic fluid collection in ultrasound and perforation of the gallbladder were independent predictors of mortality in stepwise logistic regression analysis. Neither the primary in-patient period nor the total in-patient period were significantly shorter during Period II.
Active treatment of acute cholecystitis in the elderly may decrease the need for emergency surgery. Malnutrition and perforation of the gallbladder are the most important predictors of mortality in this patient group.