This study is the first report examining the relationship between pretreatment expectancy and treatment outcome in Osage Native Americans receiving mental health services. Results reveal that in Native American participants, high expectations for advice and approval in therapy may lead to poor treatment outcomes. Conversely, low expectancies may be risk factors for poor outcomes among White American individuals. Therefore, practitioners should consider client race during assessment and appropriately address problematic pretreatment expectancies to prevent poor treatment outcome. Given the differences in direction of effects between races, it may be best to increase advice and approval of therapeutic roles when working with Native American clients; whereas, it may be best to increase pretreatment expectancies with White American clients. Results are particularly notable given that Native American clients are pervasively under-researched and under-served.
The cardiovascular diseases occupy a leading place in the structure of overall morbidity affecting the population not only of Russia but also of the majority of the developed countries throughout the world; they thus impose the heavy social and economic burden on both the public healthcare services and the modern society in general. At the same time, systemic atherosclerosis is considered to be one of the most common, severe, and life-threatening condition. Despite the presence of a large number of pharmaceutical and surgical methods for the treatment of this pathology, they are not infrequently lacking the desired effectiveness. The use of the shunting operations and endovascular methods failed to radically resolve the problem of managing systemic atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis of the lower limbs. A relatively novel approach which currently begins to find the ever increasing application for the treatment of patients presenting with cardiovascular pathology is based on the enhanced external counter-pulsation method although both the clinical and theoretical prerequisites of its application were developed rather long ago. This non-invasive therapeutic method allows to increase the perfusion pressure in the coronary arteries in diastole and to reduce the resistance to the cardiac ejection in the systole. The objective of this review article was to perform the analysis of the available literature publications on the use of the enhanced external counter-pulsation technique for the treatment of the patients presenting with the diseases of the cardiovascular system and to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of this approach as well as the availability of the treatment for the patients.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Even with appropriate donor deferrals and advanced screening tests, the risk of disease transmission through blood transfusion cannot be completely disregarded. Efficient monitoring of possible disease transmission between blood donors and recipients should be an important component of a comprehensive haemovigilance system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assembled the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) database, with data on virtually all blood donors and recipients who have been registered at least once in any of the computerized local blood bank databases in Sweden and Denmark since the start of computerized registration in 1966. The records of these individuals, with their entire computerized donation and/or transfusion histories and all donor-component-recipient connections, were linked to nationwide population and health registers to attain essentially complete follow-up for up to 36 years regarding reproduction, hospital morbidity, cancer, and death. RESULTS: After data cleaning, the database contained 1,134,290 blood donors who contributed 15,091,280 records of donations and 1,311,079 recipients who received 11,693,844 transfusions. The data quality in the existing data sources was satisfactory. From the data obtained from local blood banks, 4.6%, 1.6%, and 6.4% of the person, donation, and transfusion records, respectively, had to be discarded after review of the legitimacy of recorded values, and comparisons with independent, external databases. CONCLUSION: It is possible to use existing computerized data, collected in routine health care, in haemovigilance systems for monitoring long-term outcome and disease concordance in blood donors and transfusion recipients.
OBJECTIVE: The management of pancreatic pseudocysts varies, based mainly on local traditions, resources and expertise. No prospective, randomized study has been done comparing different approaches to treatment. The aim of the present study was to identify current treatment strategies in Sweden. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire comprising 12 questions was e-mailed to the surgical departments of all hospitals (n=58) treating patients with pancreatitis. Comparisons were made between university and non-university hospitals and between hospitals with 150,000 or more persons versus less in the primary catchment area. RESULTS: Fifty-one hospitals responded (88%). In median, 4 (0-25) patients were treated yearly due to pancreatic pseudocysts at each hospital. Five hospitals had written guidelines. Multidisciplinary team conferences were held at 36/48 centres. Treatment strategies for acute compared to chronic pancreatitis associated pseudocysts differed significantly depending on the underlying diagnosis in the major hospitals (p=0.005). Overall, 21/49 hospitals refer some of these patients and 15/50 of the departments state that they regularly assist in taking care of patients with pancreatic pseudocysts from other hospitals. The chosen treatment modalities vary widely, above all concerning endoscopic drainage, which is more common for symptomatic non-infected pseudocysts (p=0.005) as well as infected pseudocysts (p=0.004) in university hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of protocols and management strategies for pancreatic pseudocysts is reflected by the heterogeneity in treatment strategies, as seen in the present survey. Therefore patients may be at risk of receiving suboptimal treatment. A tailored therapeutic approach that takes into consideration patient preferences and involves a multidisciplinary team should be considered in all cases.
The use of supplemental oxygen in the setting of suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is recommended in international treatment guidelines and established in prehospital and hospital clinical routine throughout the world. However, to date there is no conclusive evidence from adequately designed and powered trials supporting this practice. Existing data are conflicting and fail to clarify the role of supplemental oxygen in AMI.
A total of 6,600 normoxemic (oxygen saturation [SpO2] =90%) patients with suspected AMI will be randomly assigned to either supplemental oxygen 6 L/min delivered by Oxymask (MedCore Sweden AB, Kista, Sweden) for 6 to 12 hours in the treatment group or room air in the control group. Patient inclusion and randomization will take place at first medical contact, either before hospital admission or at the emergency department. The Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies registry will be used for online randomization, allowing inclusion of a broad population of all-comers. Follow-up will be carried out in nationwide health registries and Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies. The primary objective is to evaluate whether oxygen reduces 1-year all-cause mortality. Secondary end points include 30-day mortality, major adverse cardiac events, and health economy. Prespecified subgroups include patients with confirmed AMI and certain risk groups. In a 3-month pilot study, the study concept was found to be safe and feasible.
The need to clarify the uncertainty of the role of supplemental oxygen therapy in the setting of suspected AMI is urgent. The DETO2X-AMI trial is designed and powered to address this important issue and may have a direct impact on future recommendations.