As the cost of air travel has decreased substantially in the USA and Europe over the past few decades, leisure travel to vacation destinations during the winter months has expanded significantly. This trend has probably increased the incidence of significant ultraviolet radiation exposure and sunburn in a broader population who could not previously afford this kind of travel. The purpose of this study was to analyse the correlation between increasing accessibility to air travel and melanoma incidence. This ecological study surveyed air travel patterns and melanoma incidence over the past three decades. Melanoma age-adjusted incidence was obtained from the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 9 Registry Database, 1975-2000, and the Cancer Registry of Norway, 1965-2000. United States mean inflation-adjusted airfare prices for four airports linked to leisure destinations (Miami, Los Angeles, San Diego, Phoenix) were compared with melanoma incidence. Parallel analyses were performed using annual domestic passenger-kilometres and melanoma incidence in Norway. Declining United States leisure-specific airfares corresponded strongly with increasing melanoma incidence (r = 0.96, r = 0.92, P
Worry on nine different means of transport was measured in a Norwegian sample of 853 respondents. The main aim of the study was to investigate differences in worry about accidents and worry about unpleasant incidents, and how these two sorts of worry relate to various means of transport as well as transport behavior. Factor analyses of worry about accidents suggested a division between rail transport, road transport, and nonmotorized transport, whereas analyses of worry about unpleasant incidents suggested a division between transport modes where you interact with other people and "private" transport modes. Moreover, mean ratings of worry showed that respondents worried more about accidents than unpleasant incidents on private transport modes, and more about unpleasant incidents than accidents on public transport modes. Support for the distinction between worry about accidents and unpleasant incidents was also found when investigating relationships between both types of worry and behavioral adaptations: worry about accidents was more important than worry about unpleasant incidents in relation to behavioral adaptations on private means of transport, whereas the opposite was true for public means of transport. Finally, predictors of worry were investigated. The models of worry about accidents and worry about unpleasant incidents differed as to what predictors turned out significant. Knowledge about peoples' worries on different means of transport is important with regard to understanding and influencing transport and travel behavior, as well as attending to commuters' welfare.
Acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious and potentially fatal disorder, which often complicates the course of hospitalized patients, but may also affect ambulatory and otherwise healthy people. While the introduction of thromboprophylactic measures is expected to have reduced the occurrence of postoperative VTE, there is an increasing awareness of the importance of medical conditions in determining thromboembolic events. Among the conditions that predispose patients to VTE are increasing age, cancer and its treatment, prolonged immobility, stroke or paralysis, previous VTE, congestive heart failure, acute infection, pregnancy or puerperium, dehydration, hormonal treatment, varicose veins, long air travel, acute inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatologic disease, and nephrotic syndrome. Other factors that have recently been associated with an increased risk of VTE disorders include persistent elevation of D-dimer and atherosclerotic disease. Recognition of the incidence and clinical importance of thrombosis will most likely encourage more widespread use of antithrombotic prophylaxis in medical patients.
Domestic Q fever is rare in the Nordic countries; the infection is acquired abroad in the majority of cases. This is the first Nordic report of a fatal case of Q fever, which occurred in an Icelandic cancer patient who had travelled to the Canary Islands.
In letters to her aunt a Danish nurse, sister in law to the Danish medical historian professor dr.med Evd. Gotfredsen, describes her life, professionally and as a tourist, in Rome and Paris. In 1920 she lived in Rome at the Dinesen Pension, established around the change of the century by a Danish lady. The pension developed into the favorite resort for many Scandinavian Visitors to Rome, some of them famous. During her stay in Paris 1920-26 she had close relations to the nursing bureau established under the auspices of the Danish Council of Nurses (D.S.R). For one and a half years she was the private nurse of the famous ethnologist Roland Bonaparte, grandson of Napoleon's brother Lucien, during his terminal bladder cancer.
To assess the difference in costs of home-based versus clinic-based physiotherapy (PT) for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from a societal perspective.
A cost analysis was performed using statistical and financial information provided by The Arthritis Society, Ontario Division, from April 1, 1997 to March 30, 1998. Cost estimates included treatment costs and costs borne by patients. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the effect of altering the valuation of treatment time and patient employment status.
Total costs per case were $210.87 for the home setting, and $183.87 for the clinic setting when patients were employed. Sensitivity analysis did not change the trend of the results. The estimated start-up costs for an arthritis clinic were between $302.90 and $652.40. From the perspective of the health care system, these costs would be recovered after serving 4 to 8 RA patients at a clinic.
The findings suggest that ambulatory PT care is less costly than home-based services for people with RA based on The Arthritis Society model. Further studies should be conducted to examine the effectiveness and the possible adverse consequences of alternative settings for service delivery.
When individuals plan to travel internationally, they frequently assume that they will have an enjoyable and memorable experience. But for some, the effects of culture shock may negatively impact their travels and memories. The purpose of this study was to describe culture shock as reported by student nurses who took part in an international short-term program. A phenomenological approach was utilized to elicit the essence of meaning attached to the experience. Eight student nurses in an upper Midwestern university, participated in this international experience. It was concluded that all of the student nurses experienced culture shock to a varying degree and they had varying perceptions of their experiences.