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Achieving recommended daily physical activity levels through commuting by public transportation: unpacking individual and contextual influences.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113392
Source
Health Place. 2013 Sep;23:18-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2013
Author
Rania A Wasfi
Nancy A Ross
Ahmed M El-Geneidy
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, QC, Canada H3A2K6. rania.wasfi@mail.mcgill.ca
Source
Health Place. 2013 Sep;23:18-25
Date
Sep-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Quebec
Regression Analysis
Sex Distribution
Transportation - methods
Urban Population
Walking - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
This paper estimates the amount of daily walking associated with using public transportation in a large metropolitan area and examines individual and contextual characteristics associated with walking distances. Total walking distance to and from transit was calculated from a travel diary survey for 6913 individuals. Multilevel regression modelling was used to examine the underlying factors associated with walking to public transportation. The physical activity benefits of public transportation varied along gender and socio-economic lines. Recommended minutes of daily physical activity can be achieved for public transportation users, especially train users living in affluent suburbs.
PubMed ID
23732403 View in PubMed
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Active commuting from youth to adulthood and as a predictor of physical activity in early midlife: the young Finns study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262254
Source
Prev Med. 2014 Feb;59:5-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2014
Author
Xiaolin Yang
Risto Telama
Mirja Hirvensalo
Tuija Tammelin
Jorma S A Viikari
Olli T Raitakari
Source
Prev Med. 2014 Feb;59:5-11
Date
Feb-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Analysis of Variance
Bicycling - physiology - statistics & numerical data
Body mass index
Child
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Health Behavior
Humans
Life Change Events
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Self Report
Sex Factors
Social Class
Transportation - methods
Walking - physiology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
The aims of the study were to describe the stability of active commuting (AC) behavior (i.e., walking and cycling) over 27years and examine the relationship between AC and physical activity (PA) from youth to early midlife.
The mode and distance of travel were assessed using a self-reported questionnaire at five consecutive measurements between 1980 and 2007, when 2072 individuals were followed up from youth (9-18years) to adulthood (30-45years). PA was also measured using a questionnaire.
The prevalence of AC declined sharply with age, particularly after 12years, while AC distances to work or place of study increased substantially. AC was concurrently and prospectively associated with PA in both men and women. Maintained AC, whether walking or cycling and short or long distances, positively predicted adult PA over time. Compared with persistently passive commuters, persistently active commuters had higher adult PA after adjustment for potential covariates. Increasing AC was independently associated with high adult PA, particularly in young adulthood.
Walking and cycling to school/work should be encouraged, as regular AC is associated with higher levels of PA over 27years of follow-up, and thus, may contribute to a healthy and active lifestyle through the various stages of life-course.
PubMed ID
24201092 View in PubMed
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Active commuting reduces the risk of wrist fractures in middle-aged women-the UFO study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125017
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2013 Feb;24(2):533-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2013
Author
U. Englund
P. Nordström
J. Nilsson
G. Hallmans
O. Svensson
U. Bergström
U. Pettersson-Kymmer
Author Affiliation
Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden. undis.englund@germed.umu.se
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2013 Feb;24(2):533-40
Date
Feb-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged, 80 and over
Case-Control Studies
Exercise - physiology
Female
Humans
Life Style
Middle Aged
Motor Activity - physiology
Osteoporotic Fractures - epidemiology - physiopathology - prevention & control
Risk factors
Seasons
Sweden - epidemiology
Transportation - methods
Wrist Injuries - epidemiology - physiopathology - prevention & control
Abstract
Middle-aged women with active commuting had significantly lower risk for wrist fracture than women commuting by car/bus.
Our purpose was to investigate whether a physically active lifestyle in middle-aged women was associated with a reduced risk of later sustaining a low-trauma wrist fracture.
The Umeå Fracture and Osteoporosis (UFO) study is a population-based nested case-control study investigating associations between lifestyle and fragility fractures. From a cohort of ~35,000 subjects, we identified 376 female wrist fracture cases who had reported data regarding their commuting habits, occupational, and leisure physical activity, before they sustained their fracture. Each fracture case was compared with at least one control drawn from the same cohort and matched for age and week of reporting data, yielding a total of 778 subjects. Mean age at baseline was 54.3?±?5.8 years, and mean age at fracture was 60.3?±?5.8 years.
Conditional logistic regression analysis with adjustments for height, body mass index, smoking, and menopausal status showed that subjects with active commuting (especially walking) were at significantly lower risk of sustaining a wrist fracture (OR 0.48; 95 % CI 0.27-0.88) compared with those who commuted by car or bus. Leisure time activities such as dancing and snow shoveling were also associated with a lower fracture risk, whereas occupational activity, training, and leisure walking or cycling were unrelated to fracture risk.
This study suggests that active commuting is associated with a lower wrist fracture risk, in middle-aged women.
PubMed ID
22525983 View in PubMed
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Active school transportation in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada: an exploration of trends in space and time (1986-2006).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152165
Source
Prev Med. 2009 Jun;48(6):507-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2009
Author
Ron N Buliung
Raktim Mitra
Guy Faulkner
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, University of Toronto at Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road N, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. ron.buliung@utoronto.ca
Source
Prev Med. 2009 Jun;48(6):507-12
Date
Jun-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Bicycling - physiology
Child
City Planning
Cross-Sectional Studies
Data Collection
Female
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Motor Activity
Motor Vehicles
Ontario
Retrospective Studies
Schools
Students
Time Factors
Transportation - methods
Urban Population
Walking - physiology
Abstract
This study describes temporal and spatial trends in active transportation for school trips in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada's largest city-region.
Proportions of trips by travel mode to and from school were estimated and compared for children (11-13 years) and youth (14-15 years). Data were drawn from the 1986, 1996, 2001, and 2006 versions of the Transportation Tomorrow Survey (TTS).
Between 1986 and 2006, walking mode share for trips to school declined (53.0%-42.5% for 11-13 year olds, 38.6%-30.7% for 14-15 year olds). Although there has also been a decline in walking home from school, walking rates were higher in the afternoon. In 2006, younger children in the suburbs walked less to school (36.1%-42.3% of trips) than 11-13 year olds in Toronto (48.1%) and Toronto's 14-15 year olds walked less (38.3% of trips) but used transit more (44.8% of trips) than students in the suburbs.
The findings indicate a period of decline (1986-2006) in the use of active modes for journeys to and from school for both age groups. Policies and programs to increase active transportation should acknowledge the spatial, temporal, and demographic heterogeneity of school travel decisions and outcomes.
Notes
Comment In: Prev Med. 2009 Jun;48(6):513-519500552
PubMed ID
19272403 View in PubMed
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Active School Transportation in Winter Conditions: Biking Together is Warmer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300151
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 01 15; 16(2):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-15-2019
Author
Anna-Karin Lindqvist
Marie Löf
Anna Ek
Stina Rutberg
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, 971 87 Luleå, Sweden. annlin@ltu.se.
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 01 15; 16(2):
Date
01-15-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Bicycling
Child
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Parents
Power (Psychology)
Schools
Seasons
Students
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Transportation - methods
Abstract
There has been a decline in children's use of active school transportation (AST) while there is also limited research concerning AST in winter conditions. This study aimed to explore the prerequisites and experiences of schoolchildren and parents participating in an empowerment- and gamification-inspired intervention to promote students' AST in winter conditions. Methods: Thirty-five students, who were aged 12?13 years, and 34 parents from the north of Sweden participated in the study. Data were collected using photovoice and open questions in a questionnaire and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: The results show that involvement and togetherness motivated the students to use AST. In addition, during the project, the parents changed to have more positive attitudes towards their children's use of AST. The students reported that using AST during wintertime is strenuous but rewarding and imparts a sense of pride. Conclusion: Interventions for increasing students' AST in winter conditions should focus on the motivational aspects for both children and parents. For overcoming parental hesitation with regards to AST during winter, addressing their concerns and empowering the students are key factors. To increase the use of AST all year around, targeting the challenges perceived during the winter is especially beneficial.
PubMed ID
30650653 View in PubMed
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Active transportation as a way to increase physical activity among children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146943
Source
Child Care Health Dev. 2010 May;36(3):421-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2010
Author
C. Morency
M. Demers
Author Affiliation
Department of Civil, Geological and Mining Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique of Montreal, Montreal, Canada. cmorency@polymtl.ca
Source
Child Care Health Dev. 2010 May;36(3):421-7
Date
May-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Bicycling - statistics & numerical data
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Exercise - physiology
Female
Health Behavior
Health promotion
Humans
Male
Motor Activity - physiology
Transportation - methods - statistics & numerical data
Walking - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
This study examines how active transportation could help increase the daily physical activity volume of school-aged children.
Using data from the 2003 Origin-Destination Survey carried out among 5% of the 3.5 million residents of the Greater Montreal Area, we determined the proportion of short motorized trips made daily by children 5-14 years old (16 837 children sampled) and estimated the number of steps these trips would account for if they were travelled by foot, taking into account variables such as age, sex and height of children. Modal choice and trip purpose were also examined.
In 2003, 31.2% of the daily trips made by children aged 5-14 years in the Greater Montreal Area were 1 km or less (0.6 mile). Of these, 33.0% were motorized trips. Overall, 13.1% of the children in the area had 'steps in reserve', an average of 2238 steps per child per day. If they were performed, these steps would account for 16.6% of the daily recommended volume of physical activity for children.
Replacing short motorized trips with walking could increase the physical activity level of children and contribute to meet the recommended guidelines, as long as these walking trips add to their daily physical activity volume. It could also reduce their dependence towards adults for moving around.
PubMed ID
19961503 View in PubMed
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Active transportation to school in Canadian youth: should injury be a concern?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124073
Source
Inj Prev. 2013 Feb;19(1):64-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2013
Author
Kathleen Gropp
Ian Janssen
William Pickett
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Inj Prev. 2013 Feb;19(1):64-7
Date
Feb-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Bicycling - injuries - statistics & numerical data
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Students
Transportation - methods - statistics & numerical data
Walking - injuries - statistics & numerical data
Wounds and Injuries - epidemiology
Abstract
Active transportation to school provides a means for youth to incorporate physical activity into their daily routines, and this has obvious benefits for child health. Studies of active transportation have rarely focused on the negative health effects in terms of injury. This cross-sectional study is based on the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. A sample of children aged 11-15 years (n=20?076) was studied. Multi-level logistic regression was used to examine associations between walking or bicycling to school and related injury. Regular active transportation to school at larger distances (approximately >1.6 km; 1.0 miles) was associated with higher relative odds of active transportation injury (OR: 1.52; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.15), with a suggestion of a dose-response relationship between longer travel distances and injury (p=0.02). Physical activity interventions for youth should encourage participation in active transportation to school, while also recognising the potential for unintentional injury.
Notes
Cites: Am J Prev Med. 2005 Feb;28(2 Suppl 2):134-4015694521
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PubMed ID
22627782 View in PubMed
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An international study of the exposure of children to traffic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature34249
Source
Inj Prev. 1997 Jun;3(2):89-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1997
Author
I. Roberts
J. Carlin
C. Bennett
E. Bergstrom
B. Guyer
T. Nolan
R. Norton
I B Pless
R. Rao
M. Stevenson
Author Affiliation
Institute of Child Health, University of London, UK.
Source
Inj Prev. 1997 Jun;3(2):89-93
Date
Jun-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Australia
Automobiles - statistics & numerical data
Bicycling - statistics & numerical data
Canada
Child
Comparative Study
Confidence Intervals
Data Collection
Female
Humans
International Cooperation
Male
New Zealand
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk assessment
Sampling Studies
Sweden
Transportation - methods
United States
Walking - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To examine the extent of international differences in children's exposure to traffic as pedestrians or bicyclists. DESIGN: Children's travel patterns were surveyed using a parent-child administered questionnaire. Children were sampled via primary schools, using a probability cluster sampling design. SETTING: Six cities in five countries: Melbourne and Perth (Australia), Montreal (Canada), Auckland (New Zealand), Umeå (Sweden), and Baltimore (USA). SUBJECTS: Children aged 6 and 9 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Modes of travel on the school-home journey, total daily time spent walking, and the average daily number of roads crossed. MAIN FINDINGS: Responses were obtained from the parents of 13423 children. There are distinct patterns of children's travel in the six cities studied. Children's travel in the three Australasian cities, Melbourne, Perth and Auckland, is characterised by high car use, low levels of bicycling, and a steep decline in walking with increasing car ownership. In these cities, over a third of the children sampled spent less than five minutes walking per day. In Montreal, walking and public transport were the most common modes of travel. In Umeå, walking and bicycling predominated, with very low use of motorised transport. In comparison with children in the Australasian and North American cities, children in Umeå spend more time walking, with 87% of children walking for more than five minutes per day. CONCLUSIONS: There are large international differences in the extent to which children walk and cycle. These findings would suggest that differences in 'exposure to risk' may be an important contributor to international differences in pedestrian injury rates. There are also substantial differences in pedestrian exposure to risk by levels of car ownership-differences that may explain socioeconomic differentials in pedestrian injury rates.
PubMed ID
9213152 View in PubMed
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Are characteristics of the school district associated with active transportation to school in Danish adolescents?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131633
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2012 Jun;22(3):398-404
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2012
Author
Christiane Stock
Kim Bloomfield
Bo Ejstrud
Mathilde Vinther-Larsen
Mathias Meijer
Morten Grønbæk
Ulrike Grittner
Author Affiliation
Unit for Health Promotion Research, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark. cstock@health.sdu.dk
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2012 Jun;22(3):398-404
Date
Jun-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Bicycling
Denmark
Environment
Exercise
Female
Humans
Male
Schools - statistics & numerical data
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Transportation - methods
Walking
Abstract
This study sought to determine the influence of individual factors on active transportation to school among Danish seventh graders and whether school district factors are associated with such behaviour independently of individual factors.
Mixed effects logistic regression models determined the effects of individual (gender, family affluence, enjoyment of school and academic performance) and school district factors (educational level, household savings, land use and size) on active transportation to school (by foot, bicycle or other active means) among 10 380 pupils aged 13-15 years nested in 407 school districts.
Of all students, 64.4% used active transportation to school daily. Boys, those with perceived higher school performance and those with lower family affluence were more likely to use active transportation to school. After adjustment for all individual factors listed above, high household savings at the school district level was associated with higher odds of active transportation to school. As factors of land use, low level of farming land use and high proportion of single houses were associated with active transportation to school.
Policies aiming at reducing social inequalities at the school district level may enhance active transportation to school. School districts with farming land use face barriers for active transportation to school, requiring special policy attention.
PubMed ID
21893503 View in PubMed
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Associations between active travel and weight, blood pressure and diabetes in six middle income countries: a cross-sectional study in older adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271537
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12:65
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Anthony A Laverty
Raffaele Palladino
John Tayu Lee
Christopher Millett
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12:65
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - physiology
Bicycling - statistics & numerical data
Blood Pressure - physiology
Body Weight - physiology
China - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus - epidemiology
Female
Ghana - epidemiology
Humans
India - epidemiology
Male
Mexico - epidemiology
Motor Activity - physiology
Obesity - epidemiology
Overweight - epidemiology
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Self Report
Socioeconomic Factors
South Africa - epidemiology
Transportation - methods
Travel - statistics & numerical data
Walking - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
There is little published data on the potential health benefits of active travel in low and middle-income countries. This is despite increasing levels of adiposity being linked to increases in physical inactivity and non-communicable diseases. This study will examine: (1) socio-demographic correlates of using active travel (walking or cycling for transport) among older adults in six populous middle-income countries (2) whether use of active travel is associated with adiposity, systolic blood pressure and self-reported diabetes in these countries.
Data are from the WHO Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) of China, India, Mexico, Ghana, Russia and South Africa with a total sample size of 40,477. Correlates of active travel (=150 min/week) were examined using logistic regression. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to examine health related outcomes according to three groups of active travel use per week.
46.4% of the sample undertook =150 min of active travel per week (range South Africa: 21.9% Ghana: 57.8%). In pooled analyses those in wealthier households were less likely to meet this level of active travel (Adjusted Risk Ratio (ARR) 0.77, 95% Confidence Intervals 0.67; 0.88 wealthiest fifth vs. poorest). Older people and women were also less likely to use active travel for =150 min per week (ARR 0.71, 0.62; 0.80 those aged 70+ years vs. 18-29 years old, ARR 0.82, 0.74; 0.91 women vs. men). In pooled fully adjusted analyses, high use of active travel was associated with lower risk of overweight (ARR 0.71, 0.59; 0.86), high waist-to-hip ratio (ARR 0.71, 0.61; 0.84) and lower BMI (-0.54 kg/m(2), -0.98;- 0.11). Moderate (31-209 min/week) and high use (=210 min/week) of active travel was associated with lower waist circumference (-1.52 cm (-2.40; -0.65) and -2.16 cm (3.07; -1.26)), and lower systolic blood pressure (-1.63 mm/Hg (-3.19; -0.06) and -2.33 mm/Hg (-3.98; -0.69)).
In middle-income countries use of active travel for =150 min per week is more common in lower socio-economic groups and appears to confer similar health benefits to those identified in high-income settings. Efforts to increase active travel levels should be integral to strategies to maintain healthy weight and reduce disease burden in these settings.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25986001 View in PubMed
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56 records – page 1 of 6.