Autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) has been shown to be an effective treatment for follicular lymphoma (FL). We explored our experience in ASCT for FL among all patients treated over a 15-year period from diagnosis through their entire treatment history including relapse post ASCT. All patients who underwent an unpurged ASCT for relapsed, advanced FL between June 1990 and December 2000 were analyzed. After salvage therapy they received melphalan/etoposide/total body irradiation, BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan (BEAM), or cyclophosphamide BCNU etoposide (CBV) as conditioning for the ASCT. One hundred thirty-eight patients with a median age of 48 years and a median follow-up of 7.6 years were analyzed. The majority were of the subtype grade 1, nontransformed (FL-NT), having had 1 prior chemotherapy. The progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of the FL-NT at 10 years were 46% and 57%, respectively, and at 5 years for the transformed (FL-T) were 25% and 56%, respectively, of which only the PFS was significantly different (P=.007). The median OS from diagnosis was 16 years for the FL-NT. ASCT positively altered the trend of shorter remissions with subsequent chemotherapies, and there was no difference in OS between those who had 1, 2, or >2 chemotherapies prior to ASCT. Salvage therapy for relapse post ASCT was effective (OS>1 year) in a third of patients. Unpurged ASCT is an effective tool in the treatment of relapsed, aggressive FL-NT and FL-T, is superior to retreatment with standard chemotherapy, is effective at various stages of treatment, is likely to have a beneficial influence on the natural history of this disease, and the disease is amenable to salvage therapy post-ASCT relapse.
This study aims to make an account of the children born following transplantation of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue worldwide with specific focus on the perinatal outcome of the children. Furthermore, perinatal outcome of seven deliveries (nine children) from Denmark is reported.
PubMed was searched for papers of deliveries resulting from ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC). Seven women underwent OTC prior to chemotherapy. Four of these women still had low ovarian function and had tried to conceive. They therefore had tissue autotransplanted to augment their fertility. The other three women had developed premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) after the end of treatment.
Worldwide, approximately 95 children have been born or will be born in the near future from OTC, including these 9 new children. Information on the perinatal outcome was found on 40 children. The mean gestational age was 39 weeks and the mean birth weight was 3168 g of the singleton pregnancies, which is within internationally recognized normal standards. Furthermore, half the singletons resulted from natural conception and all twins resulted from in vitro fertilization treatment. All seven Danish women became pregnant within 1-3 years after transplantation. They gave birth to nine healthy children.
The data is reassuring and further suggests that cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is becoming an established fertility preservation method. The seven Danish women reported in this study were all in their early thirties when OTC was performed. Most other reported cases were in the women's twenties. This suggests that the follicular pool in the thirties is large enough and sufficient to sustain fertility.
The aim of the present investigation was to compare the costs for the use of patellar tendon versus hamstring tendons as grafts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction including the different fixation methods. The background is that during recent years there has been a dramatic shift from patellar tendon to hamstring tendons in ACL reconstructions in Sweden. All our patients with ACL reconstructions performed during 1 year (2004) were included. Knee joints numbering 440 in 439 patients were primary ACL reconstructions. A hamstring graft was used in 345 knee joints (78.4%) and a patellar tendon graft in 95 (21.6%) of the patients (Table 2). On average 34 (SD 12.9; range 14-63) ACL reconstructions per surgeon were performed by a total of 14 surgeons. The average cost for patellar tendon procedure was 197 euros compared to 436 euros for the hamstring procedure. Mean time for surgery in primary reconstructions was 11.5 min shorter (P
Trials have reported clinical improvement and reduced need for amputation in critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients receiving therapeutic angiogenesis with stem cells. Our objective was to test peripheral stem cell therapy efficacy and safety to gain experiences for further work.
We included nine CLI patients (mean age 76.7 ±9.7). Stem cells were mobilized to the peripheral blood by administration of G-CSF (Filgrastim) for 4 days, and were collected on day five, when 30 mL of a stem cell suspension was injected into 40 points of the limb. The clinical efficacy was evaluated by assessing pain relief, wound healing and changes in ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI). Local metabolic and inflammatory changes were measured with microdialysis, growth factors and cytokine level determination. Patients were followed for 24 weeks.
Four patients experienced some degree of improvement with pain relief and/or improved wound healing and ABI increase. One patient was lost to follow up due to chronic psychiatric illness; one was amputated after two weeks. Two patients had a myocardial infarction (MI), one died. One patient died from a massive mesenteric thrombosis after two weeks and one died from heart failure at week 11. Improved patients showed variable effects in cytokine-, growth factor- and local metabolic response.
Even with some improvement in four patients, severe complications in four out of nine patients, and two in relation to the bone marrow stimulation, made us terminate the study prematurely. We conclude that with the increased risk and the reduced potential of the treatment, peripheral blood stem cell treatment in the older age group is less appropriate. Metabolic and inflammatory response may be of value to gain insight into mechanisms and possibly to evaluate effects of therapeutic angiogenesis.
All children in Sweden who underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with an HLA-identical sibling during a 5-year period were compared to those who were treated with chemotherapy and survived at least 3 months after remission. All patients were observed for more than 2 years after diagnosis or relapse. All 11 children with acute myeloid leukemia in first remission who underwent BMT survived compared to only 1 of 15 treated with chemotherapy (p less than 0.001). In children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), those relapsing while on chemotherapy and treated with BMT in second to fourth remission (n = 16) had a 5-year survival of 43% compared to 16% for those treated with chemotherapy (n = 53, p less than 0.05). In children with ALL relapsing after cessation of therapy, 4-year survival was 33% for BMT (n = 6) and 55% for chemotherapy (n = 15), p = 0.05).
Allogeneic transplantation after reduced intensity conditioning (allo-RIC) is a treatment option for patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) relapsing after autologous transplantation. In all, 23 adult patients with HL underwent allo-RIC in Sweden between 2000 and 2007. The median number of previous treatment lines was five and 20 patients (87%) were previously autografted. TRM at 100 days and at 1 year was 13 and 22% respectively. Acute GVHD grades II-IV developed in 7 out of 23 patients (30%) and chronic GVHD in 10 out of 20 patients at risk (50%). The OS and EFS at three years was 59 and 27%, respectively. Four patients (17%) developed post transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) after a median time of 55 days (range 38-95); two of these patients later died. The study confirmed that allo-RIC is feasible, but associated with a substantial relapse rate: only 20% of the patients were still alive 7 years after the transplant. A finding of high incidence of PTLD needs to be confirmed in a larger trial that includes patients with non-HL and CLL.
When chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) marrow is set up in long-term culture (LTC), Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive (Ph+) cells typically decline and Ph-negative (Ph-) hematopoietic cells often become detectable. In 1987, we initiated a study to evaluate the feasibility of using 10-day cultured marrow autografts to allow intensive treatment of CML. Patients were selected on the basis of a previous assessment of the frequencies of normal and leukemic LTC-initiating cells (LTC-IC) remaining in their marrow after 10 days of LTC. Of the 87 patients evaluated, 36 (41%) were considered eligible, and 22 (15 in first chronic phase [CP], Group 1; and 7 with more advanced disease, Group 2) were autografted with 10-day cultured marrow after intensive therapy. Satisfactory hematological recovery occurred in 16 patients, and of these, only Ph- cells were detected in 13 (nine in Group 1), with 76-94% Ph- cells in the other three (two in Group 1). Ph+ cells reappeared between 4 and 36 months post-autograft in all but one of the 13 patients in whom complete (morphological and cytogenetic) remission had been achieved; the remaining patient died in remission. Nine of these twelve patients were then treated with alpha-interferon (IFN-alpha) 1-3 x 10(6) units/m2, 3-7 days/week; four returned to complete remission, three developed increasing numbers of Ph+ cells, and two are still too early to evaluate. Fifteen patients (12 in Group 1) remain alive and well, nine in hematological remission (eight in Group 1), 9 to 64 months (median 28) post-autograft.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) have been treated according to national protocols in Sweden since 1986. Stem cell transplantation (SCT) has been recommended in first remission for patients with risk factors for relapse, and for standard risk patients only after relapse. In this retrospective study, the results of autologous and allogeneic SCT in these populations were evaluated. In total, 187 patients with a median age of 34 years (17-66 years) underwent SCT. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS), for all patients, was 26% (Confidence intervals (CI) 20-32%). The 5-year DFS was higher for patients transplanted in first remission 32% (CI 24-40%) compared to 14% (CI 5-23%; P
Autologous bone marrow transplantation is used for children with cancers which are only partially responsive to bone marrow toxic doses of cancer chemotherapy and irradiation. The use of megatherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation instead of conventional doses for children has yielded substantial benefits in B-cell lymphoma, relapse of leukaemia, disseminated neuroblastoma and germ cell tumors. In the case of Wilms' tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma with a partial initial response or a relapse, autologous bone marrow transplantation has been used to a limited extent. Based on the best results from conventional therapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation, respectively, the present need for autologous bone marrow transplantation in Denmark is estimated to be 24 transplantations a year.