Processing and metabolism of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and generation of a variety of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides in the human brain is essentially associated with pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). APP degradation activity of the 68 kDa serine protease, which was originally prepared from familial AD lymphoblastoid cells and harbors beta-secretase-like activity, was analyzed by Western blot using anti Abeta 1/40 antibody and anti APP cytoplasmic domain (CT) antibody. Native lymphocyte APP (LAPP) prepared from normal or AD-derived lymphoblastoid cells was degraded by the protease, generating a 16 kDa Abeta-bearing C-terminal fragment of APP. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the fragment indicated that the protease cleaves LAPP at the Abeta-N-terminus. When the LAPP was treated with chondroitinase ABC prior to proteolysis, the activity to generate the fragment was inhibited, but pretreatment with heparitinase resulted in no effect. Native hippocampal APP prepared from normal brain, however, did not generate the 16 kDa peptide by the protease treatment. These results suggest that the process of APP degradation and Abeta-peptides generation, including beta-secretase activity, is associated with tissue specificity of both APP substrate and proteases. They also indicate that sulfated glycoconjugates attached to a portion of APP isoforms may play a role as a molecular determinant in the proteolysis.
Goroji Nakagawa, a chief keeper of a trading house on Iturup Island, was brought unwillingly to Siberia by Russian vessels in 1807. In 1812, after about five years of hard life in Siberia, he was permitted to return to his homeland with two Russian books on vaccination. Sadayosi Baba, who stayed at Matsumae in 1813, happened to read one of the two books that had been published in 1803 in Peterburg and he translated it into Japanese. Within several months Baba finished his translation, however, he was clearly aware that the translation was far from perfect. Baba revised his draft in 1820 and titled it "Tonka Hiketu" or "The complete method for relieving small pox infection." But it remained unpublished until 1850, when Sen-an Tosimitsu obtained one of the manuscripts at Nagasaki and published it as "Rosia Gyuto Zensho" or "A Synopsis of Russian Vaccination." At present, sixteen manuscripts of "Tonka Hiketu" are extant in Japan and most of them are in public libraries. Bibliographical considerations of their contents, phonogramic descriptions of the original Russian title, comparisons of their illustrations with the originals and differences among Japanese translations reveal to us that the manuscript "Takeda A," among sixteen extant manuscripts, is the closest to the original manuscript of Sadayosi Baba, which remains lost.
To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice.
Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets' effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility.
Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia.
Forty-nine primary care physicians.
Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants' opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews.
With Actionable Nuggets, participants' knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians' practices was 72%. Participants' awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent.
Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian Medical Association to approximately 50,000 primary care physicians in Canada, in both English and French.
For patients' entire families, it can be challenging to live with cancer during the palliative stage. However, a sense of coherence buffers stress and could help health professionals identify families that require support. Therefore, the short version of the Family Sense of Coherence Scale (FSOC-S) was translated, culturally adapted, and validated in a Swedish sample.
Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the FSOC-S into Swedish was conducted in accordance with the World Health Organization's Process for Translation and Adaptation of Research Instruments guidelines. Participants were recruited from two oncology clinics and two palliative centers in Sweden.
Content validity was supported by experts (n = 7), persons with cancer (n = 179), and family members (n = 165). Homogeneity among items was satisfactory for persons with cancer and family members (item-total correlations were 0.45?0.70 and 0.55?0.72, respectively) as well as internal consistency (ordinal alpha = 0.91 and 0.91, respectively). Factor analyses supported unidimensionality. FSOC-S correlated (rs > 0.3) with hope, anxiety, and symptoms of depression, which supported convergent validity. The test-retest reliability for items ranged between fair and good (kw = 0.37?0.61).
The FSOC-S has satisfactory measurement properties to assess family sense of coherence in persons with cancer and their family members. FSOC-S could be used to identify family members who experience low levels of perceived family sense of coherence which provides health care professionals with insight into families' needs and ability to live with cancer in the palliative stage.
The aim of this study was to adapt the instrument 'Good Nursing Care Scale for Patients' to Swedish conditions as a measure of patients' satisfaction, as well as estimating its reliability and validity. Following a pilot test, discussions in the author group, testing for readability among patients and judgement of content validity by a panel of experts, the final version was reduced to 72 items focusing on good caring. The refined instrument was assessed for internal consistency in 447 surgical in-patients, for 2 week test-retest reliability in 100 patients and subjected to orthogonal principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation, followed by second-order factor analysis. The internal consistency item-item correlation coefficient ranged from 0.15 to 0.91, correlation between each item and the total scale was >or=0.30 for 70 items, Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the final scale was 0.79 and test-retest reliability was 0.75. An orthogonal principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation was conducted on the final 71 items and the 15 first-order factors with eigenvalues >or=1 explained 66% of the total variance. A second-order factor analysis of these 15 factors as items resulted in a seven-factor solution. The total variance explained by the seven factors was 79%. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the seven factors ranged between 0.32 and 0.95. The instrument seems reliable and valid to assess the patients' satisfaction with what happened during their hospital stay. To confirm the factor structure and improve factor consistency additional development and testing is suggested.
Shared learning activities aim to enhance the collaborative skills of health students and professionals in relation to both colleagues and patients. The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale is used to assess such skills. The aim of this study was to validate a Danish four-subscale version of the RIPLS in a sample of 370 health-care students and 200 health professionals.
The questionnaire was translated following a two-step process, including forward and backward translations, and a pilot test. A test of internal consistency and a test-retest of reliability were performed using a web-based questionnaire.
The questionnaire was completed by 370 health care students and 200 health professionals (test) whereas the retest was completed by 203 health professionals. A full data set of first-time responses was generated from the 570 students and professionals at baseline (test). Good internal association was found between items in Positive Professional Identity (Q13-Q16), with factor loadings between 0.61 and 0.72. The confirmatory factor analyses revealed 11 items with factor loadings above 0.50, 18 below 0.50, and no items below 0.20. Weighted kappa values were between 0.20 and 0.40, 16 items with values between 0.40 and 0.60, and six items between 0.60 and 0.80; all showing p-values below 0.001.
Strong internal consistency was found for both populations. The Danish RIPLS proved a stable and reliable instrument for the Teamwork and Collaboration, Negative Professional Identity, and Positive Professional Identity subscales, while the Roles and Responsibility subscale showed some limitations. The reason behind these limitations is unclear.
The Cambridge pulmonary hypertension outcome review (CAMPHOR) is the first pulmonary hypertension-specific instrument for the assessment of the patient's perceived symptoms, activity limitations and quality of life (QoL).
To produce and validate a Swedish language version of the CAMPHOR.
Bilingual (n = 5) and lay panels (n = 5) were conducted to translate the CAMPHOR into Swedish. This new questionnaire was then field-tested with 14 patients and finally, it underwent psychometric evaluation by means of a postal validation study involving 38 patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH).
Few problems were experienced in translating the CAMPHOR into Swedish. The field-test participants found the scales relevant, comprehensible and easy to complete. Psychometric analyses showed that the Swedish adaptation was successful. The Swedish CAMPHOR scales had good internal consistency. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.92 for the symptoms scale, 0.92 for activity limitations and 0.95 for the quality of life. Predicted correlations with the Nottingham Health Profile provided evidence of the construct validity of the scales. The Swedish scales also indicated known groups validity.
The Swedish version of the CAMPHOR is a reliable and valid measure of the impact of pulmonary hypertension on the lives of affected patients. It is recommended for use in clinical studies and routine practice in pulmonary hypertension patients.
Instruments for evaluating end-of-life care by voicing experiences of family members have previously been lacking in Sweden. The objective of this study was therefore to adapt and validate the VOICES (SF) questionnaire to evaluate quality of end-of-life care in Sweden. The VOICES (SF) [Views of Informal Carers - Evaluation of Services (Short form)] is a questionnaire about bereaved relatives' experiences of care in the last three months of life of a deceased family member.
This study was performed based on translation and back translation, cross-cultural adaptation and content validation through cognitive interviewing and feedback from professional experts. For the cognitive interviews, a purposeful sample of 35 bereaved family members was recruited from home care, hospital wards and nursing homes. The participants were 13 men and 22 women (age ranged between 20 and 90+, mean age 66), who were relatives of persons who died from life-limiting conditions. The bereaved family members' and the professional experts' concerns were summarised and analysed based on clarity, understanding, relevance, sensitivity and alternative response/wording.
The main concerns emerging from the content validation related to the understanding and clarity of some of the questionnaire items', and a few concerns regarding the relevance of different response alternatives or items. Only two of the family members found it emotional to complete the questionnaire, and they still deemed completing it to be important and manageable.
The VOICES (SF) can be considered as feasible in the Swedish context, provided that cultural adaptation has been achieved, that is translation alone is not enough. The Swedish version will be available for healthcare professionals to use for quality monitoring of the care provided over the last three months in life, and for research, it enables national and cross-national comparisons between different healthcare places and organisations.
OBJECTIVES: The study was designed to adapt the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and the Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RAQoL) for use in Denmark. METHOD: The instruments were translated into Danish and then field-tested with 10 RA patients for relevance, and face and content validity. Reliability and validity were assessed by administering the new measures and a comparator instrument (the Danish Nottingham Health Profile) to 80 RA patients on two occasions. RESULTS: Patients found both measures acceptable and easy to complete. They had good test-retest reliability (>0.90) and internal consistency and were both able to discriminate between groups with different levels of functional status and self-perceived severity. When compared with the NHP sections, both measures showed expected convergence and divergence. CONCLUSION: Given the excellent psychometric properties of the Danish versions of the RAQoL and HAQ, both are recommended for inclusion in clinical trials and studies.
To our knowledge, no instrument has been developed and tested for measuring unfinished care in Norwegian nursing home settings. The Basel Extent of Rationing of Nursing Care for Nursing Homes instrument (BERNCA-NH) was developed and validated in Switzerland to measure the extent of implicit rationing of nursing care in nursing homes. The BERNCA-NH comprises a list of nursing care activities in which a care worker reports the frequency to which activities were left unfinished over the last 7 working days as a result of lack of time. The aim of this study was to adapt and modify a Norwegian version of the BERNCA-NH intended for all care workers, and assess the instruments' psychometric properties in a Norwegian nursing home setting.
The BERNCA-NH was translated into Norwegian and modified to fit the Norwegian setting with inputs from individual cognitive interviews with informants from the target population. The instrument was then tested in a web-based survey with a final sample of 931 care workers in 162 nursing home units in different parts of Norway. The psychometric evaluation included score distribution, response completeness and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of a hypothesised factor structure and evaluation of internal consistency. Hypothesised relation to other variables was assessed through correlations between the subscale scores and three global ratings.
The Norwegian version of BERNCA-NH comprised four subscales labelled: routine care, 'when required' care, documentation and psychosocial care. All subscales demonstrated good internal consistency. The CFA supported the four-factor structure with fit statistics indicating a robust model. There were moderate to strong bivariate associations between the BERNCA-NH subscales and the three global ratings. Three items which were not relevant for all care workers were not included in the subscales and treated as single items.
This study found good psychometric properties of the Norwegian version BERNCA-NH, assessed in a sample of care workers in Norwegian nursing homes. The results indicate that the instrument can be used to measure unfinished care in similar settings.