Access to health care for undocumented migrant children and pregnant women confronts human rights and professional values with political and institutional regulations that limit services. In order to understand how health care professionals deal with these diverging mandates, we assessed their attitudes toward providing care to this population. Clinicians, administrators, and support staff (n = 1,048) in hospitals and primary care centers of a large multiethnic city responded to an online survey about attitudes toward access to health care services. Analysis examined the role of personal and institutional correlates of these attitudes. Foreign-born respondents and those in primary care centers were more likely to assess the present access to care as a serious problem, and to endorse broad or full access to services, primarily based on human rights reasons. Clinicians were more likely than support staff to endorse full or broad access to health care services. Respondents who approved of restricted or no access also endorsed health as a basic human right (61.1%) and child development as a priority (68.6%). A wide gap separates attitudes toward entitlement to health care and the endorsement of principles stemming from human rights and the best interest of the child. Case-based discussions with professionals facing value dilemmas and training on children's rights are needed to promote equitable practices and advocacy against regulations limiting services.
In British Columbia, Canada, the City of Vancouver's notorious Downtown Eastside (DES) represents the poorest urban population in Canada. A prevalence rate of 30% for HIV and 90% for hepatitis C makes this a priority area for public-health interventions aimed at reducing the use of injected drugs. This study examined the utility of acupuncture treatment in reducing substance use in the marginalized, transient population. Acupuncture was offered on a voluntary, drop-in basis 5 days per week at two community agencies. During a 3-month period, the program generated 2,755 client visits. A reduction in overall use of substances (P=.01) was reported by subjects in addition to a decrease in intensity of withdrawal symptoms including "shakes," stomach cramps, hallucinations, "muddle-headedness," insomnia, muscle aches, nausea, sweating, heart palpitations, and feeling suicidal, P
The association between anthropometric measures and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is different in Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin migrants compared with the general population in Finland: a cross-sectional population-based study.
Persons of African and Middle-Eastern origin living in European countries have a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes, accompanied by high prevalence of obesity among women but not always among men. The aim of this study was to examine whether there are differences in the association between anthropometric measures and glucose levels measured with glycated haemoglobin and fasting blood glucose among persons of migrant origin in Finland.
Cross-sectional population-based data of the 30-64?year-old participants in the health examination of the Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study was used, selecting persons without diabetes (Russian origin n =?293, Somali origin n =?184, Kurdish origin n =?275). The reference group were non-diabetic participants in the Health 2011 Survey (n =?653), representative of the general Finnish population. Anthropometric measures included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, available for Maamu Study participants only).
Depending on whether continuous or categorical anthropometric measures were used, age, sex and anthropometrics explained 13-18% of variation in HbA1c among persons of Russian origin, 5-10% among persons of Somali origin, 1-3% among persons of Kurdish origin and 11-13% among the general population. Also depending on whether continuous or categorical anthropometric measures were used, age, sex and anthropometrics explained 13-19% of variation in fasting blood glucose among persons of Russian origin, 15-20% among persons of Somali origin, 13-17% among persons of Kurdish origin and 16-17% among the general population. With exception for BMI, strength of the association between continuous anthropometric measures and HbA1c was significantly lower among persons of Kurdish origin compared with the general Finnish population (p =?0.044 for WC and p =?0.040 for WHtR).
A low degree of association between anthropometric measures and HbA1c was observed among persons of Kurdish origin. Findings of this study suggest caution is warranted when using HbA1c as a screening tool for glucose impairment among persons without diabetes in populations of diverse origin.
The Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey recently demonstrated widespread discrimination across EU countries, with high discrimination rates observed in countries like Finland. Discrimination is known to negatively impact health, but fewer studies have examined how different types of perceived discrimination are related to health.
This study examines (i) the prevalence of different types of perceived discrimination among Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin populations in Finland, and (ii) the association between different types of perceived discrimination (no experiences; subtle discrimination only; overt or subtle and overt discrimination) and health (self-rated health; limiting long-term illness (LLTI) or disability; mental health symptoms). Data are from the Finnish Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (n = 1795). Subtle discrimination implies reporting being treated with less courtesy and/or treated with less respect than others, and overt discrimination being called names or insulted and/or threatened or harassed. The prevalence of discrimination and the associations between discrimination and health were calculated with predicted margins and logistic regression.
Experiences of subtle discrimination were more common than overt discrimination in all the studied groups. Subtle discrimination was reported by 29% of Somali origin persons and 35% Russian and Kurdish origin persons. The prevalence of overt discrimination ranged between 22% and 24%. Experiences of discrimination increased the odds for poor self-reported health, LLTI and mental health symptoms, particularly among those reporting subtle discrimination only.
To promote the health of diverse populations, actions against racism and discrimination are highly needed, including initiatives that promote shared belonging.
We assumed that persons with a Russian/Soviet cultural background have a more skeptical attitude towards psychotherapy than persons with a German background because of the poor distribution of psychotherapy and the knowledge about this kind of treatment in Russia.
We compared the views of Russian probands (n=40), Russian migrants living in Germany (n=65) and German probands (n=70) with the "Questionnaire on Attitudes towards Psychotherapeutic Treatment" (QAPT). For the study of the Russian probands we translated the questionnaire into the Russian language.
The psychometric examination predominantly suggests the quality of the Russian version of the QAPT. Russian probands showed a more skeptical attitude towards psychotherapy compared to the German probands. The migrants had a tendentially more negative attitude than the Germans and a more positive attitude than the Russians. However, we could not determine any differences concerning the anticipated social acceptance regarding participation in psychotherapy.
The results suggest the relevance of culture-specific factors in psychotherapy and an increased need for information of persons with a Russian/Soviet cultural background about psychotherapy.
Since reproductive health is often considered a highly sensitive topic, underreporting in surveys and under coverage of register data occurs frequently. This may lead to inaccurate information about the reproductive health. This study compares the proportion of women having births and induced abortions among migrant women of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin in Finland to women in the general Finnish population and examines the agreement between survey- and register-based data.
The survey data from the Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study conducted in 2010-2012 and data from the Health 2011 Survey with corresponding information on women in the general population were used in this study. The respondents were women aged 18-64: 341 Russian, 176 Somali and 228 Kurdish origin women and 630 women in the general population. The survey data were linked to the Finnish Medical Birth Register and the Register of Induced Abortions.
In the combined (survey and register) data, migrant groups aged 30-64 had a higher proportion (89-96%) compared to the general population (69%) of women with at least one birth. Under-coverage of registered births was observed in all study groups. Among women aged 18-64, 36% of the Russian group and 24% of the Kurdish group reported more births in the survey than in the register data. In the combined data, the proportions of Russian origin (69%) and Kurdish origin (38%) women who have had at least one induced abortion in their lifetime are higher than in the general population (21%). Under-reporting of induced abortions in survey was observed among Somali origin women aged 18-29 (1% vs. 18%). The level of agreement between survey and register data was the lowest for induced abortions among the Somali and Russian groups (-?0.01 and 0.27).
Both survey- and register-based information are needed in studies on reproductive health, especially when comparing women with foreign origin with women in the general population. Culturally sensitive survey protocols need to be developed to reduce reporting bias.
The objective of this study was to describe breastfeeding practices and to compare the risk of suboptimal breastfeeding of women living in Denmark according to country of origin, and further to examine how socio-economic position and duration of stay in the country affected this risk. Information on breastfeeding of 42,420 infants born 2002-2009 and living in eighteen selected Danish municipalities was collected from the Danish Health Visitor's Child Health Database. The data was linked with data on maternal socio-demographic information from Danish population-covering registries. Suboptimal breastfeeding was defined as
Cites: J Epidemiol Community Health. 2010 Dec;64(12):1080-519996356
STUDY AIMS: To investigate the incidence of cancer among 1st generation migrants compared to native Danes, including time trends in the risk of cancer among migrants. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study design. Migrants were matched 1:4 on age and sex with a Danish born reference population. The cohort was linked to the Danish Cancer Register and cancer cases among migrants (n=537) and native Danes (n=2829) were identified. RESULTS: The overall cancer incidence did not differ significantly between migrants from East Europe and native Danes; whereas migrants from the Middle East and North Africa had a significantly lower incidence. All migrants had a significantly lower incidence of breast and colorectal cancer but male migrants from East Europe had a significantly higher incidence of lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The overall cancer incidence among migrants was lower compared to native Danes. The time trends of the study are interesting and a relevant topic for further research.
Cancer incidence in Estonians who took refuge in Sweden in 1944-1945 has been compared with that in the total Swedish population and that among Estonians in Estonia in 1974-1985 using data from the Swedish and the Estonian countrywide population-based cancer registries. The vast majority of the Estonian immigrants studied had been living in Sweden for 30 years when the follow-up with respect to cancer incidence started in this investigation. In spite of the long residence in Sweden, differences in cancer incidence could be observed between these immigrants and the total Swedish population. The age-standardized incidence of stomach cancer was higher in the Estonian migrants than in the total Swedish population (SIR = 1.6 and 2.1 for males and females, respectively). Breast cancer incidence was lower in the migrant women (SIR = 0.75) and lung cancer incidence higher in migrant men (SIR = 1.5). An increased incidence of colorectal cancer was also found for both sexes in the migrant population (SIR = 1.4 for both males and females). A comparison between Estonians in Estonia and the total Swedish population revealed that the cancer incidence for the Estonians was lower than expected at age 70 and over. Male lung cancer and stomach cancer showed a higher incidence in the Estonian population than in the Swedish and in the migrant populations. The migrant population showed an intermediate incidence relative to Estonians in Estonia and the entire Swedish population. The colon-cancer risk in Estonian migrants to Sweden was higher than the risk for Estonians in Estonia and for the Swedish population. This contrasts with most findings in the present and other studies on intermediate risks of migrants compared to the risks in the country of origin and in the new country of residence.
Cancer incidence rates were examined in the native peoples of the far north-east of Siberia for the years 1977-1988. Particularly high rates of cancers of the stomach, lung, oesophagus and cervix were observed. For stomach cancer, the male and female age-standardized (to the world population) rates were 103.9 per 100,000 and 50.0 per 100,000 respectively. The corresponding lung cancer rates were 109.4 and 45.7, and for oesophageal cancer 83.9 and 35.0. The age-standardized cervical cancer rate was 38.5 per 100,000. Rates of these cancers were considerably higher than in native Alaskan peoples, although the latter had higher rates of breast and colorectal cancers. The rates were also much higher than those of the migrant peoples from Russia and elsewhere who have settled in the far north-east over the past 3 centuries, particularly at younger ages. Male rates of stomach and lung cancer were highest in the paleo-Asiatic peoples of the north, whereas male oesophageal rates were highest in the Taiga people. In females, rates of stomach and oesophageal cancers were highest in the paleo-Asiatic peoples, and rates of lung cancer were highest in the Taiga nationalities. Cervical cancer rates were highest in the Amuro-Sakhalin nationalities of the south. Further research is needed at individual levels to explain the very high risks and the differences among the ethnic groups.