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The cost of health professionals' brain drain in Kenya.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature81422
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2006;6:89
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Kirigia Joses Muthuri
Gbary Akpa Raphael
Muthuri Lenity Kainyu
Nyoni Jennifer
Seddoh Anthony
Author Affiliation
World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Congo. kirigiaj@afro.who.int
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2006;6:89
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Costs and Cost Analysis - statistics & numerical data
Developing Countries - economics
Emigration and Immigration - statistics & numerical data
Europe
Great Britain
Health Manpower - economics - statistics & numerical data
Health Services Research
Humans
Kenya - ethnology
Middle Aged
Models, Econometric
Nurses - economics - supply & distribution
Physicians - economics - supply & distribution
Schools - economics
Schools, Medical - economics
Schools, Nursing - economics
Training Support - economics - statistics & numerical data
United States
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Past attempts to estimate the cost of migration were limited to education costs only and did not include the lost returns from investment. The objectives of this study were: (i) to estimate the financial cost of emigration of Kenyan doctors to the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA); (ii) to estimate the financial cost of emigration of nurses to seven OECD countries (Canada, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Portugal, UK, USA); and (iii) to describe other losses from brain drain. METHODS: The costs of primary, secondary, medical and nursing schools were estimated in 2005. The cost information used in this study was obtained from one non-profit primary and secondary school and one public university in Kenya. The cost estimates represent unsubsidized cost. The loss incurred by Kenya through emigration was obtained by compounding the cost of educating a medical doctor and a nurse over the period between the average age of emigration (30 years) and the age of retirement (62 years) in recipient countries. RESULTS: The total cost of educating a single medical doctor from primary school to university is 65,997 US dollars; and for every doctor who emigrates, a country loses about 517,931 US dollars worth of returns from investment. The total cost of educating one nurse from primary school to college of health sciences is 43,180 US dollars; and for every nurse that emigrates, a country loses about 338,868 US dollars worth of returns from investment. CONCLUSION: Developed countries continue to deprive Kenya of millions of dollars worth of investments embodied in her human resources for health. If the current trend of poaching of scarce human resources for health (and other professionals) from Kenya is not curtailed, the chances of achieving the Millennium Development Goals would remain bleak. Such continued plunder of investments embodied in human resources contributes to further underdevelopment of Kenya and to keeping a majority of her people in the vicious circle of ill-health and poverty. Therefore, both developed and developing countries need to urgently develop and implement strategies for addressing the health human resource crisis.
PubMed ID
16846492 View in PubMed
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Factors influencing rural health care professionals' access to continuing professional education.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature170417
Source
Aust J Rural Health. 2006 Apr;14(2):51-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2006
Author
Vernon R Curran
Lisa Fleet
Fran Kirby
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada. vcurran@mun.ca
Source
Aust J Rural Health. 2006 Apr;14(2):51-5
Date
Apr-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude of Health Personnel
Benchmarking
Canada
Computer-Assisted Instruction
Costs and Cost Analysis
Education, Continuing - organization & administration - statistics & numerical data
Faculty - statistics & numerical data
Health Care Surveys
Health Personnel - education - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Needs Assessment
Rural Health Services - organization & administration - statistics & numerical data
Training Support - economics - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The purposes of this study were to explore the perceived barriers and challenges to continuing professional education (CPE) access for Canadian health care professionals and to identify best practices for improving access to CPE.
Key informant interviews and Web-based online surveys were conducted.
Key informant interviews were conducted with national CPE accreditation bodies and health professional associations. An online survey was distributed to health professional education programs, as well as provincial professional associations, licensing and professional regulatory bodies.
The perceived barriers and challenges to CPE access for Canadian health care professionals and best practices for improving access to CPE.
Geographic isolation and poor technological and telecommunications infrastructure were identified as key barriers to CPE delivery and access. Financial factors, such as funding to support travel or cost of attendance, were also identified as major challenges. Tele-education programming was identified as a best practice approach to improve CPE access, as were regional CPE activities and self-directed learning programs. Employer-sponsored initiatives, including staff coverage or locum support, remuneration for time off and paid travel expenses for CPE participation were also identified as best practice approaches.
PubMed ID
16512789 View in PubMed
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Reimbursing for the costs of teaching and research in Finnish hospitals: a stochastic frontier analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169796
Source
Int J Health Care Finance Econ. 2006 Mar;6(1):83-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2006
Author
Miika Linna
Unto Häkkinen
Author Affiliation
Center for Health Economics at Stakes (CHESS), National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Helsinki, Finland. miika.linna@stakes.fi
Source
Int J Health Care Finance Econ. 2006 Mar;6(1):83-97
Date
Mar-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Education, Medical - economics
Education, Nursing - economics
Efficiency, Organizational - economics - statistics & numerical data
Empirical Research
Financing, Government - statistics & numerical data
Finland
Hospital Costs - statistics & numerical data
Hospitals, Teaching - economics
Humans
Models, Econometric
Reimbursement Mechanisms
Research Support as Topic - economics - statistics & numerical data
Stochastic Processes
Training Support - economics - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
In this study stochastic frontier cost function was used to estimate the teaching and research costs of Finnish hospitals. Predicted efficiency adjusted costs were calculated and compared to evaluate the current level of teaching and research reimbursement. The efficiency adjustment had significant impact on the marginal and average cost estimates of the teaching and research output. The results suggest that the average rate of teaching and research reimbursement should be approximately 14.6% of the total operating costs in university teaching hospitals. The main finding was that the university teaching hospitals were underfunded with respect to both research and teaching output.
PubMed ID
16612572 View in PubMed
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