BACKGROUND: Data concerning incidence and prevalence of cancer in the different regions of Russia have traditionally not been provided on a basis that facilitated comparison with data from countries in western parts of Europe. The oncological hospital in Arkhangelsk, in co-operation with Universitetet i Tromsø (Norway), has established a population based cancer registry for Arkhangelskaja Oblast (AO). AO is an administrative unit with 1.3 million inhabitants in northwestern Russia. The aim of this investigation was to assess the content and quality of the AO cancer registry (AKR), and to present the site-specific cancer-incidence rates in AO in the period 1993-2001. METHODS: The population in this study consisted of all individuals registered as residents of AO. All new cancer cases in the period 1993-2001, registered the AKR, were included in the study (ICD-10: C00-C95, except for C77-78). The annual gender and age-group-specific population figures were obtained from the AO statistics office. RESULTS: A total of 34,697 cases of primary cancers were included. The age-adjusted (world standard) incidence rate for all sites combined was 164/100,000 for women and 281/100,000 for men. The highest incidence was for cancer of the trachea, bronchus and lung (16.3% of all cases), whereof 88.6 % of the cases were among men. Among women, cancer of the breast constituted 15.9 percent of all cases. The age-adjusted incidences of the most frequent cancer sites among men were: lung (77.4/100,000); stomach (45.9); rectum (13.4); oesophagus (13.0); colon (12.2); bladder (11.6); and prostate cancer (11.1). Among women they were: breast (28.5); stomach (19.7); colon (12.2); and ovary cancer (9.0). CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm and strengthen the indication that the incidences of stomach, larynx, liver, pancreas, prostate, colon, bladder and melanoma cancer are quite different in male populations in Russia compared to many other European countries. Among women, most major cancer types, except stomach, appear to be relatively low in Russian populations. The AKR provides quality data for estimations and insight to the cancer incidence in a northern Russian population, and we consider the reported incidence rates to reflect the cancer situation in AO well.
The cancer morbidity in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania is still high: 248.2 (1998), 243.1 (1999) and 241.3 (2000) per 100,000. The site distribution patterns varied significantly: the leading localizations in 1991 were trachea, lungs and bronchus--32.1; breast--28.3; skin--26.5; stomach--21.2 and hemopoietic organs--18.0. By the year 2000, the situation had changed dramatically: breast--60.2; skin--33.7 and respiratory system--20.4.
This study describes the geographical variations in the incidence of, and mortality due to, the most frequent cancers in Quebec. They are breast, colon and tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancers in women and prostate, colon and trachea, bronchial and lung cancers in men. Data for the periods 1984 to 1986 and 1989 to 1991 for the whole of the Quebec Community Health Department are reviewed. A direct method of standardization, with the world population as the reference population, was used to allow comparison of geographical units. The ranking correlation method was used to test correlations for the various cancer sites. There were significant coefficients between the two periods only for lung cancer for both sexes, for both incidence and mortality. The spatial autocorrelation method was used to determine the presence or absence of a geographical configuration from the estimated rates. Moran I values were positive and significant for the two periods for lung cancer associated mortality and for the incidence of breast cancer. This implicates local factors (probably associated with lifestyle). The results for the incidence of lung cancer among men and women were similar for the period 1989 to 1991. The advantages and limitations of the methods used and also the data available are considered.
Despite increasing use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) and reports linking selected bio-implants with cancer, the cancer risk associated with implanted ICDs remains unknown. The objective of our study was to examine cancer risk among ICD recipients.
We conducted a population-based cohort study using medical registries covering the entire Danish population. We identified all first-time ICD recipients during the period of 2000-11 and determined their subsequent cancer incidence. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were computed by comparing observed cancer incidence in the ICD cohort with expected cancer incidence based on national incidence rates according to age, sex, and year of diagnosis. A total of 6723 ICD recipients were followed for up to 12 years (median 2.8 years) and contributed a total of 23 254 person-years of follow-up. Compared with the general population, ICD recipients had a slightly elevated overall risk of cancer [SIR = 1.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0-1.2)]. This was driven by the cancer risk among patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) [SIR = 1.1 (95% CI: 1.0-1.3)], which, as expected, was particularly elevated for tobacco-related cancers [SIR = 1.4 (95% CI: 1.2-1.6)]. Importantly, ICD recipients without IHD were not at increased cancer risk [SIR = 1.0 (95% CI: 0.8-1.3)].
This nationwide population-based cohort study with up to 12-year follow-up did not indicate a causal relation between ICD implantation and cancer. However, more follow-up data are needed to entirely rule out risks for individual cancer types.
During the period 1967-1985, 95 primary tracheal carcinomas occurred in Finland. The mean annual incidence rate was one per one million inhabitants, the male:female ratio being 7:3. There was a significant increase of the disease by increasing age with the exception of 70-79 years. The most common location was the lower third of the trachea. Over two-thirds of the tumours were squamous carcinomas. Smoking seems to be an important risk factor at least in males.
OBJECTIVE: Most published series on tracheal cancer reflect single institution experiences. We used the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry to report on characteristics and treatment of tracheal cancers in Denmark. METHODS: One hundred and nine cases of primary tracheal cancers were extracted from the registry in the period 1978-1995. The clinical data, histological distribution and treatment modalities were analyzed. The cancers were staged in four groups (stage I-IV) according to size, location and spread. RESULTS: Seventeen cases were diagnosed at autopsy. Ninety-two cases were diagnosed in vivo and 84% of these within 3 months after the first consultation. Sixty-three percent of the cancers were squamous cell carcinomas and only 7% were adenoid cystic carcinomas. The disease was at stage I in 21%, stage II in 23%, stage III in 6% and stage IV in 50%. The majority of the patients received radiotherapy as single treatment. Only nine patients were offered surgery (six were resected and three were found inoperable). The overall survival rates for cases diagnosed in vivo were 1-year 32%, 2-year 20% and 5-year 13%. For the resected patients the 5- and 15-year survival rates were 50%. CONCLUSIONS: Tracheal cancers were rare and adenoid cystic carcinomas not as frequent as generally believed. Surgery was rarely offered. A resectability rate of only 10% is not adequately explained by selection bias and indicates a nihilistic attitude based on ignorance about surgical treatment of tracheal cancers. A more dedicated and aggressive approach with centralized workup and radical treatment is strongly recommended.
The first Nd-YAG laser treatment for endoluminal airway obstruction in Norway was performed at Aker Hospital in November 1983. During the ensuing seven years 68 patients have been treated, involving altogether 172 procedures. During the early years a flexible bronchoscope was used to guide the flexible laser probe, in later years the usual practice has been to use the rigid bronchoscope, 54 patients were treated for malignant tumour, three for semi-malignant and 11 for benign tumour. In general, the best results were achieved with a proximal location of the tumour. Two patients died during the procedure from hypoxia, and one patient died from hemoptysis on the fifth day after operation. Based on retrospective studies of the clinical journal and the results from postmortem examination of 97 consecutive patients who died from pulmonary carcinoma, we anticipated that six of these patients would have benefited from laser treatment on at least one occasion during their disease. In Norway, with an incidence of approximately 400 cases of pulmonary carcinomas each year per million inhabitants, we estimate the need of lung laser procedures to be 25 per million each year.
The treatment results of all the 95 primary tracheal carcinomas recorded by the Finnish Cancer Registry in 1967-1985 are evaluated. Six of the 95 patients were treated by surgery, 60 received radiotherapy and 29 were left untreated or received only palliative endoscopic or cytostatic therapy. The prognosis of the disease was poor. Among the 44 squamous cell carcinoma patients treated by radiotherapy, the median survival time after the diagnosis was 8 months (range 1-81 months). Complete response to radiotherapy was a favourable prognostic sign; after complete response the survival rates at 1, 2 and 5 years were 45%, 18% and 9% respectively. Patients with adenocystic carcinoma had the best prognosis.