Alcohol intake and serum copper, selenium, magnesium, iron and zinc were investigated in 85 subjects, 48 males and 37 females. Alcohol intake was measured with a questionnaire probing alcohol intake during the preceding 30 days. Mean average daily intake among males was 119.7 g (range 0-622.3 g) and among females 32.1 g (range 0-378.5 g), and the mean consumption per drinking day among males was 208.5 g (range 0-666.7 g) and among females 63.8 g (range 0-63.8 g). Among males alcohol intake per drinking day correlated positively with serum copper (r = 0.50; P less than 0.001) and negatively with serum selenium (r = -0.49; P less than 0.001) and magnesium (r = 0.40; P less than 0.01). Likewise, among females alcohol intake per drinking day correlated positively with serum copper (r = 0.54; P less than 0.01) and negatively with serum magnesium (r = -0.36; P less than 0.05). Serum selenium concentration was negatively and significantly correlated with average daily intake (r = -0.34; P less than 0.05) but not with intake per drinking day. No significant correlations were found between alcohol intake and serum zinc or iron levels. Only two men, both abstainers, had abnormally low serum zinc level, and two other men (average daily alcohol intake less than 37 g) and two women (average daily alcohol intake less than 15 g) had abnormally high serum iron level. Alcohol intake was associated with high serum copper and low serum magnesium and selenium levels.
Saint Petersburg State University, Universitetskiy pr. 26, 198504 Saint Petersburg, Russia; Institute of Toxicology, Federal Medico-Biological Agency, ul. Bekhtereva 1, 192019 Saint Petersburg, Russia.
A sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method for the determination of Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Tl, U, V and Zn in whole blood and urine was designed. Microwave-assisted digestion with concentrated nitric acid was used for blood samples. Urine samples were analyzed after 1/50 (v/v) dilution with 5% (v/v) nitric acid. For beryllium the necessity of medium resolution mode (R=4000) was shown. Method validation was performed using blood and urine reference materials and by analyzing of spiked samples. For the designed method relative standard deviation (RSD) for the concentration range 0.01-1.0 µg/L was 5-10%. RSD did not exceed 3% when trace elements concentrations were above 1.0 µg/L. Method detection limits (3s): Ag 0.7 ng/L, Al 16 ng/L, As 3.4 ng/L, Ba 0.02 ng/L, Be 1.5 ng/L, Cd 7.7 ng/L, Co 1.0 ng/L, Cr 2.8 ng/L, Cs 9.8 ng/L, Cu 27 ng/L, Fe 1.1 ng/L, Mn 1.8 ng/L, Ni 17 ng/L, Pb 13 ng/L, Se 0.07 ng/L, Sr 5.7 ng/L, Tl 0.2 ng/L, U 0.1 ng/L, V 0.7 ng/L and Zn 1.2 ng/L. A developed method was applied for trace element biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers of a beryllium processing enterprise. For preliminary risk assessment technological surface dust had been analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Based upon results of 50 blood and 40 urine samples analyses occupational exposure evaluation was performed. Exposure risks were found not to exceed acceptable ranges. Possible health hazards were found for Be and also Al, Cr, Mn. Occupational health and safety recommendations for the biomonitored enterprise medical care unit were issued as a result of the current investigation.
The blood concentrations of cadmium, cobalt, lead, manganese, copper, and zinc were studied in Vladivostok schoolchildren with diffuse non-toxic goiter followed up by an endocrinologist for 2-5years. It was established that the content of cadmium, cobalt, lead, and manganese significantly exceeded the relevant values in healthy adolescents and that of copper was lower. Zinc levels did not differ from those in healthy individuals.
Twenty-eight Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) and 26 Barrow's Goldeneyes (Bucephala islandica) were captured in Prince William Sound, Alaska, between 1 and 15 March 2005. Blood was collected for quantification of element concentrations, prevalence of antibodies to several viruses, and hemoparasite prevalence and identification. Although we found selenium concentrations that have been associated with selenosis in some birds (>or=2.0 ppm ww), our findings contribute to a growing literature describing relatively high selenium in apparently healthy birds in marine environments. Avian influenza virus antibodies were detected in the plasma of 28% of the ducks. No antibodies against adenovirus, reovirus, or paramyxovirus 1 were detected. Several hemo-parasite species were identified in 7% of ducks. Our findings are similar to those in other free-living marine waterfowl and do not indicate unusual concerns for the health of these species in this area in late winter.
BACKGROUND: An association between Down syndrome and celiac disease has been reported. This study was conducted to determine the association between childhood celiac disease and Down syndrome in the county of Uppsala, Sweden. METHODS: All 76 children with Down syndrome (1-18 years) were screened for the occurrence of anti-gliadin antibodies (AGA) and anti-endomysium antibodies (EMA). Twelve children with suspected celiac disease were investigated further. RESULTS: Increased levels of both IgA and IgG AGA were found in 26% of the children and of EMA in and 5 of 76. Celiac disease was diagnosed in at least three of the children (3.9%; 95% confidence interval 0%-8.3%), and it could have been present in as many as eight. Three of the five EMA-positive children with suspected celiac disease had the HLA phenotype DR3, DQ2. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that determination of EMA is more useful as a screening test for celiac disease and for follow-up than is AGA in children with Down syndrome. The present study also confirms that celiac disease is overrepresented among Swedish children with Down syndrome and that celiac disease should be considered in all persons with Down syndrome.
Dairy cows are highly susceptible to infectious diseases, like mastitis, during the period around calving. Although factors contributing to increased susceptibility to infection have not been fully elucidated, impaired neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection and changes in the concentrations of some micronutrients related with the function of the immune defence has been implicated. Most of the current information is based on studies outside the Nordic countries where the conditions for dairy cows are different. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate changes in blood concentrations of the vitamins A and E, the minerals calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), and magnesium (Mg), the electrolytes potassium (K) and sodium (Na) and the trace elements selenium (Se), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), as well as changes in total and differential white blood cell counts (WBC) and expression of the adhesion molecules CD62L and CD18 on blood neutrophils in Swedish dairy cows during the period around calving. Blood samples were taken from 10 cows one month before expected calving, at calving and one month after calving. The results were mainly in line with reports from other countries. The concentrations of vitamins A and E, and of Zn, Ca and P decreased significantly at calving, while Se, Cu, and Na increased. Leukocytosis was detected at calving, mainly explained by neutrophilia, but also by monocytosis. The numbers of lymphocytes tended to decrease at the same time. The mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) of CD62L and CD18 molecules on blood neutrophils remained constant over time. The proportion of CD62L+ neutrophils decreased significantly at calving. The animals were fed according to, or above, their requirements. Therefore, changes in blood levels of vitamins, minerals and trace elements were mainly in response to colostrum formation, changes in dry matter intake, and ruminal metabolism around calving. Decreased levels of vitamins A and E, and of Zn at calving might have negative implications for the functions of the immune defence. The lower proportion of CD62L+ neutrophils at calving may result in less migration of blood neutrophils into the tissues, and might contribute to the increased susceptibility to infections at this time.
Results of complex medical-physiological research performed during 10 scientific expeditions in Arkhangelsk region in 2003-2005 are presented. Influence of climatic-geographic, biogeochemical and social conditions of North-West region of Russia on sexual maturation, formation of the brain structural-functional organization, vegetative functions, immunological and biochemical status of schoolchildren was studied with the aid of modern neurophysiologic (computer electroencephalography, computer rheoencephalography, computed electric dipole origin tomography, etc.), psychophysiological and psychometric methods (evaluation of cognitive and mnestic functions, Vechsler 1Q estimation), biochemical assessment of monoamine oxidase and butyrylcholinesterase activity, physical-chemical analysis of macro- and microelements in the organism.
Arctic Investigations Program, Division of Preparedness and Emerging Infections, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, AK, USA.
Biomonitoring for heavy metals is important to assess health risks, especially in Arctic communities where rural residents rely on locally harvested foods. However, laboratory testing for blood contaminants is expensive and might not be sustainable for long-term monitoring. We assessed whether pooled specimen biomonitoring could be a part of a plan for blood contaminant surveillance among pregnant women in rural Alaska using existing blood mercury level data from three cross sectional studies of pregnant women. We applied a hypothetical pooled specimen template stratified into 8 demographic groups based on age, coastal or inland residence, and pre-pregnancy weight. The hypothetical geometric mean blood mercury levels were similar to the individual-level geometric means. However, the 95% confidence intervals were much wider for the hypothetical geometric means compared to the true geometric means. Although the variability that resulted from pooling specimens using a small sample made it difficult to compare demographic groups to each other, pooled specimen results could be an accurate reflection of the population burden of mercury contamination in the Arctic in the context of large numbers of biomonitoring samples.
BACKGROUND: This project is part of an assessment of the impact of environmental factors on human health in the Kola Peninsula of Russia and the neighboring arctic area of Norway. Pregnant women and their newborns were studied to explore a relationship between maternal status of essential metals and birth weight. METHODS: Life-style information and serum specimens were collected from at least 50 consecutive mother-infant pairs from hospital delivery departments in three Russian and three Norwegian communities (N=151 and 167, respectively). Pregnancy outcomes were verified by consulting medical records. Copper, selenium and zinc in serum were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry and ferritin by an automated analyzer method. RESULTS: Mean birth weight and child's body mass index (BMIC) were significantly lower in the Russian group (p