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AIDS in Haitian immigrants and in a Caucasian woman closely associated with Haitians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature241400
Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1983 Dec 1;129(11):1209-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1-1983
Author
M. Laverdière
J. Tremblay
R. Lavallée
Y. Bonny
M. Lacombe
J. Boileau
J. Lachapelle
C. Lamoureux
Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1983 Dec 1;129(11):1209-12
Date
Dec-1-1983
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - diagnosis - epidemiology - immunology
Adult
Bacterial Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology
Emigration and Immigration
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Haiti - ethnology
Humans
Male
Mycoses - diagnosis - epidemiology
Quebec
Toxoplasmosis - diagnosis - epidemiology
Virus Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology
Abstract
In Montreal the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was seen in eight Haitian immigrants and one Caucasian woman who had lived with Haitian immigrants for 3 years before the onset of her illness. AIDS was characterized by opportunistic infections alone in seven patients, by opportunistic infection and Kaposi's sarcoma in one patient and by chronic generalized lymphadenopathy in one patient. Five of the patients had presented with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections 1 to 12 months before the onset of opportunistic infections. All nine patients were found to have recall anergy by skin testing for delayed hypersensitivity. Enumeration of the lymphocyte subpopulations in three patients showed a marked inversion of the ratio of helper to suppressor T lymphocytes. Six of the patients died as a result of the opportunistic infections; autopsies showed no recognizable causes of immunodeficiency. Thus, there is in Montreal a third clustering of AIDS cases in North America related to Haitian immigrants.
Notes
Cites: J Exp Med. 1970 Nov;132(5):1001-184919141
Cites: Clin Chem. 1975 Nov;21(12):1735-461182993
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 1981 Nov;14(5):486-917031082
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1983 May 19;308(20):1181-46221192
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1982 Oct;97(4):533-96982014
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1983 Jan 20;308(3):125-96217423
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1983 Mar;98(3):277-846299151
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1982 Jul 15;307(3):162-56806657
PubMed ID
6640458 View in PubMed
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[Diagnosis and treatment of infections in a neonatal unit--viral infections, spirochete infections and toxoplasma infections]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature59498
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1993 May 30;113(14):1701-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-30-1993
Author
T W Hansen
P. Gaustad
H. Rollag
T G Abrahamsen
P H Finne
Author Affiliation
Neonatalseksjonen, Rikshospitalet, Oslo.
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1993 May 30;113(14):1701-5
Date
May-30-1993
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
English Abstract
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Intensive Care, Neonatal - methods
Norway
Spirochaetales Infections - diagnosis - drug therapy - transmission
Toxoplasmosis - diagnosis - drug therapy - transmission
Virus Diseases - diagnosis - drug therapy - transmission
Abstract
Viral and protozoal infections are often suspected as causes of neonatal illness or congenital anomalies. The TORCH titer has traditionally been the foremost diagnostic tool in this context, but it is now becoming increasingly clear that this tool is inadequate, partly for conceptual reasons, but also because of the often uncritical way in which it is used. During a recent critical review of our routines and practices for diagnosis and treatment of neonatal infections we also revised our approach to the diagnosis and treatment of suspected pre- or perinatally acquired viral, spirochetal, and protozoal illnesses. The resulting guidelines, originally intended for our house staff, are presented here.
Notes
Comment In: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1993 Aug 10;113(18):22838362399
PubMed ID
8322295 View in PubMed
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Diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis by two-dimensional immunoblot differentiation of mother and child immunoglobulin g profiles.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29920
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Feb;43(2):711-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2005
Author
Henrik Vedel Nielsen
Dorte Remmer Schmidt
Eskild Petersen
Author Affiliation
Laboratory of Parasitology, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, DK-2300 Copenhagen, Denmark. hvn@ssi.dk
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Feb;43(2):711-5
Date
Feb-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antibodies, Protozoan - blood
Antibody Specificity
Antigens, Protozoan - immunology
Comparative Study
Female
Humans
Immunoblotting - methods
Immunoglobulin G - blood
Infant, Newborn
Neonatal Screening
Toxoplasma - immunology
Toxoplasmosis - diagnosis - parasitology
Toxoplasmosis, Congenital - diagnosis - parasitology
Abstract
Differentiation between the specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) response to Toxoplasma gondii by a mother and her newborn child is helpful in the diagnosis of congenital infection with T. gondii in newborns without T. gondii-specific IgM and/or IgA antibodies at birth. Previous methods include immunoblotting and complexing T. gondii antigen with the sera from the mother and child and comparing the bands after electrophoresis. We developed a two-dimensional immunoblotting (2DIB) method with T. gondii RH strain tachyzoite antigen and validated the method with sera from 11 children identified through the neonatal screening program for congenital toxoplasmosis in Denmark. The children were identified by using Toxoplasma-specific IgM antibodies at the screening test, but the presence of T. gondii-specific IgM and/or IgA antibodies could not be confirmed at the subsequent serum sample tested. The children were monitored for at least 12 months, and in seven of eight patients monitored for 12 months the results of the 2DIB-predicted congenital infection were confirmed by the presence of persistent Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies. 2DIB is a sensitive technique that allows early differentiation between passively transferred maternal T. gondii-specific IgG antibodies and antibodies synthesized by the newborn child.
PubMed ID
15695668 View in PubMed
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Economic evaluation of preventive programmes against congenital toxoplasmosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature59684
Source
Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1992;84:86-96
Publication Type
Article
Date
1992
Author
B. Stray-Pedersen
P. Jenum
Author Affiliation
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aker University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1992;84:86-96
Date
1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Female
Health Education - economics
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Mass Screening - economics
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic - diagnosis - drug therapy
Toxoplasmosis - diagnosis - drug therapy
Toxoplasmosis, Congenital - economics - epidemiology - prevention & control
Abstract
Benefit-cost analysis are applied to different strategies aimed at preventing congenital toxoplasmosis. The first strategy involves health education of pregnant women on how to avoid toxoplasma infection. The second strategy comprise serological surveillance in pregnancy combined with prenatal diagnosis and chemotherapy. The cost of health education is less than the cost of the serological screening, but health education will most likely lead to a haphazard testing of individuals and thereby increasing the cost. The best and most rational approach, and the programme which will prevent most cases and save most money for the society, is a combination of both programmes. Compared with the results of any of the two strategies alone, the benefits of the combined programme will increase significantly, while the cost (NOK 165 per participating woman) will only add fractions to that of the serological screening programme. The benefits of the strategies are influenced by many uncertain factors such as the discount rate, the incidence of infection, the intrauterine transmission rate, the outcome of pregnancy, the prognosis of the offspring, the sensitivity of the screening tests and the effectiveness of the programme. After applying a sensitivity analysis, both programmes were found to be of economic benefit to society at an incidence of maternal toxoplasmosis of 1-1.5 per 1000. Thus the pilot screening initiated in Norway to determine the incidence of infection, seems justified.
PubMed ID
1290083 View in PubMed
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[Evaluation of the efficacy of the Toxoplasma gondii screening program among pregnant women in Nunavik, 1994-2003].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154225
Source
Can J Public Health. 2008 Sep-Oct;99(5):397-400
Publication Type
Article
Author
Elaine Lavoie
Benoit Lévesque
Jean-François Proulx
Jennifer Grant
Angéla Davys Ndassebe
Suzanne Gingras
Bruno Hubert
Michael Libman
Author Affiliation
Unité de recherche en santé publique, Centre de Recherche du CHUL, Québec.
Source
Can J Public Health. 2008 Sep-Oct;99(5):397-400
Language
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Mass Screening
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic - diagnosis
Program Evaluation
Serologic Tests
Time Factors
Toxoplasmosis - diagnosis - epidemiology
Toxoplasmosis, Congenital - diagnosis - epidemiology
Abstract
(1) To evaluate the efficacy of the Toxoplasma gondii screening program among Nunavik pregnant women in identifying seroconversions during pregnancy and performing an appropriate follow-up of the seroconverted women and their child; and (2) to evaluate the consequences of congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection.
Women of child-bearing age and their children born between January 1994 and September 2003.
Nunavik.
Potential cases of infection during pregnancy and of congenital toxoplasmosis were identified on the basis of serologic and hospitalization data. A medical chart revision was then performed. Descriptive statistics regarding the medical follow-up and treatment of suspected cases were compiled.
31 women who gave birth to 32 children were identified as potential cases. According to the medical charts, 19 women had a potential infection during pregnancy, the others were deemed to have been infected before conception. One woman had a definite infection. This woman and most of the 18 other potentially infected women and their children were treated appropriately. Because of missing data, it was impossible to determine with certainty the final status of two children. A diagnosis of congenital infection was rejected among the other children.
Women with suspected infection and their children were generally well managed by the health care system. No clinical effect of congenital toxoplasmosis was noted during the studied period.
PubMed ID
19009924 View in PubMed
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Incidence of primary toxoplasma infections during pregnancy in southern Finland: a prospective cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature224650
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1992;24(1):97-104
Publication Type
Article
Date
1992
Author
M. Lappalainen
P. Koskela
K. Hedman
K. Teramo
P. Ammälä
V. Hiilesmaa
M. Koskiniemi
Author Affiliation
Department of Virology, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1992;24(1):97-104
Date
1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Antibodies, Protozoan - blood
Cohort Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Immunoglobulin G - blood
Immunoglobulin M - blood
Incidence
Mass Screening
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - diagnosis - epidemiology
Pregnancy outcome
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Toxoplasmosis - diagnosis - epidemiology
Abstract
Congenital toxoplasmosis may develop after maternal primary infection during pregnancy. Since toxoplasmosis in adults is usually asymptomatic, the only way to find the pregnancies at risk of acute toxoplasmosis (i.e. seronegative mothers) is to perform serological screening of all pregnant women. We studied toxoplasma-specific antibodies in 16,733 pregnant women in the first, second, and third trimesters over an 18-month period in the Helsinki area, with a population of 820,700. The participation rate in our study was 90.2% of all pregnancies in the area. The overall prevalence of toxoplasma seropositivity was 20.3%. The incidence of primary infection was 2.4/1000 pregnancies at risk. Our data on incidence suggest an annual occurrence of 131 cases of primary toxoplasma infections during pregnancy in Finland. Primary toxoplasma infection appears to be a significant risk to the fetus even in countries where the prevalence of toxoplasma seropositivity is low. The feasibility of mass screening for toxoplasma infections during pregnancy should be considered in order to reduce the morbidity and mortality due to congenital toxoplasmosis.
PubMed ID
1589732 View in PubMed
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[Intrauterine zoonotic infections in Dagestan].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature204199
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1998 Jul-Aug;(4):33-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
G V Sultanov
M S Saidov
Author Affiliation
Daghestan Medical Academy, Makhachkala.
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1998 Jul-Aug;(4):33-6
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Animal Husbandry
Animals
Brucellosis - diagnosis - epidemiology
Dagestan - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Listeriosis - diagnosis - epidemiology
Meat-Packing Industry
Occupational Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology
Poultry
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - diagnosis - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Toxoplasmosis - diagnosis - epidemiology
Zoonoses - epidemiology
Abstract
As the result of the prospective examination of 863 pregnant women in urban and rural consultation clinics for women in Daghestan, a high proportion of them were found to be infected with toxoplasmosis (25.5%), brucellosis (1.85%) and listeriosis (12.2%). The data on the contamination of 1325 women with aggravated obstetric history were confidently higher, constituting 52.0%, 3.3% and 22.2% respectively. The results of the examination of women working on live-stock farms (226 women) and poultry farms (106 women) demonstrated a significantly high frequency of contamination with the above-mentioned zoonotic infections. The data thus obtained were indicative of the necessity of organizing epidemiological surveillance on these infections; for their diagnostics a complex of laboratory methods could be used, though the effectiveness of these methods was different in different nosological forms.
PubMed ID
9783397 View in PubMed
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Management of suspected primary Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Norway: twenty years of experience of amniocentesis in a low-prevalence population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290084
Source
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017 04 26; 17(1):127
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
04-26-2017
Author
Gry Findal
Anne Helbig
Guttorm Haugen
Pål A Jenum
Babill Stray-Pedersen
Author Affiliation
University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oslo, Norway. gryfi@medisin.uio.no.
Source
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017 04 26; 17(1):127
Date
04-26-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Abortion, Spontaneous - etiology
Adult
Amniocentesis - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Maternal Serum Screening Tests - methods
Norway
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic - diagnosis
Prenatal Diagnosis - adverse effects - methods
Retrospective Studies
Toxoplasmosis - diagnosis
Unnecessary Procedures - adverse effects - methods
Abstract
Primary infection with Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy may pose a threat to the fetus. Women infected prior to conception are unlikely to transmit the parasite to the fetus. If maternal serology indicates a possible primary infection, amniocentesis for toxoplasma PCR analysis is performed and antiparasitic treatment given. However, discriminating between primary and latent infection is challenging and unnecessary amniocenteses may occur. Procedure-related fetal loss after amniocentesis is of concern. The aim of the present study was to determine whether amniocentesis is performed on the correct patients and whether the procedure is safe for this indication.
Retrospective study analysing data from all singleton pregnancies (n?=?346) at Oslo University Hospital undergoing amniocentesis due to suspected maternal primary toxoplasma infection during 1993-2013. Maternal, neonatal and infant data were obtained from clinical hospital records, laboratory records and pregnancy charts. All serum samples were analysed at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health or at the Toxoplasma Reference Laboratory at Oslo University Hospital. The amniocenteses were performed at Oslo University Hospital by experienced personnel. Time of maternal infection was evaluated retrospectively based on serology results.
50% (173) of the women were infected before pregnancy, 23% (80) possibly in pregnancy and 27% (93) were certainly infected during pregnancy. Forty-nine (14%) women seroconverted, 42 (12%) had IgG antibody increase and 255 (74%) women had IgM positivity and low IgG avidity/high dye test titre. Fifteen offspring were infected with toxoplasma, one of them with negative PCR in the amniotic fluid. Median gestational age at amniocentesis was 16.7 gestational weeks (GWs) (Q1?=?15, Q3?=?22), with median sample volume 4 ml (Q1?=?3, Q3?=?7). Two miscarriages occurred 4 weeks after the procedure, both performed in GW 13. One of these had severe fetal toxoplasma infection.
Half of our study population were infected before pregnancy. In order to reduce the unnecessary amniocenteses we advise confirmatory serology 3 weeks after a suspect result and suggest that the serology is interpreted by dedicated multidisciplinary staff. Amniocentesis is safe and useful as a diagnostic procedure in diagnosing congenital toxoplasma infection when performed after 15 GW.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28441952 View in PubMed
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Maternal infection with toxoplasma gondii in pregnancy and the risk of hearing loss in the offspring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98453
Source
Int J Audiol. 2010 Jan;49(1):65-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Marit Erna Austeng
Anne Eskild
Morten Jacobsen
Pål A Jenum
Andrew Whitelaw
Bo Engdahl
Author Affiliation
Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Fredrikstad Hospital Trust, Fredrikstad, Norway. Marit.Erna.Austeng@so-hf.no
Source
Int J Audiol. 2010 Jan;49(1):65-8
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Auditory Threshold
Child, Preschool
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hearing Loss - epidemiology - etiology
Hearing Tests
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - diagnosis - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Registries
Risk
Toxoplasma
Toxoplasmosis - diagnosis - epidemiology
Toxoplasmosis, Congenital - diagnosis - epidemiology
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal infection with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in pregnancy and subsequent risk of hearing loss in the offspring. The study included 27 727 children born in Norway 1992-1994. Maternal toxoplasma infection during pregnancy was ascertained by serological examination and fetal infection was ascertained by parasite detection in amniotic fluid and/or postnatal serological examination. Hearing loss was defined as mean hearing loss >35 dB HL in the better ear averaged over the pure-tone hearing thresholds at 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz, and the children were identified through linkage to the Norwegian Registry of Hearing Loss in Children. Twenty-two of the 27 727 children (0.08%) were diagnosed with hearing loss. Forty women had primary T. gondii infection in pregnancy. None of their offspring had hearing loss. There was also no association between T. gondii infection prior to pregnancy and hearing loss in the offspring. Hence, we did not find any association between T. gondii infection in pregnancy and hearing loss in the offspring.
PubMed ID
20053157 View in PubMed
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[On the epidemiologic assessment of toxoplasma infection of donors blood].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature110081
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1969 May;46(5):105-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1969

18 records – page 1 of 2.