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Congener specific PCB and polychlorinated camphene (toxaphene) levels in Svalbard ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in relation to sex, age, condition and cytochrome P450 enzyme activity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6811
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1998 May 14;216(1-2):1-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-14-1998
Author
J. Wolkers
I C Burkow
C. Lydersen
S. Dahle
M. Monshouwer
R F Witkamp
Author Affiliation
Akvaplan-niva, Tromsø, Norway.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1998 May 14;216(1-2):1-11
Date
May-14-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - anatomy & histology
Age Factors
Animals
Body Burden
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System - metabolism
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Female
Male
Norway
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Seals, Earless - anatomy & histology - metabolism
Sex Factors
Toxaphene - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Abstract
Congener specific PCB and toxaphene (polychlorinated camphene, PCC) analyses were performed in seal blubber, collected in Svalbard, Norway. The concentration, body burden and metabolic index (PCB congener concentration in seal relative to their prey) were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were carried out to evaluate the influence of age, sex, blubber (as a percentage of total body weight) and cytochrome P450 activities on PCB and PCC levels. Levels of total PCBs found were five times higher than in ringed seals from the Canadian Arctic, corresponding with the relatively high contaminant levels in the European Arctic. The dominant PCB congeners (> 70% of the total PCBs measured) were 153, 138, 99, 180 and 101. The observed PCB and PCC accumulation patterns were very similar to patterns in seals from other studies, suggesting a large resemblance in contaminant metabolism. A decrease in the relative abundance of the lower chlorinated PCBs, was associated with higher concentrations of PCB 153. Since there was no indication for selective PCB excretion by lactating females, this suggests metabolism of these PCBs in ringed seals due to xenobiotic metabolising enzymes. The metabolic index confirmed the model of persistency of the different PCBs except for congener 128 and 138. These congeners, considered persistent in seals, could to some extent be metabolised in ringed seals. However, co-elution of PCB 138 with PCB 163 and of PCB 128 with TOX 50 possibly has resulted in an underestimation of the metabolic index for these congeners. Multiple regression analyses revealed a significant positive effect of age and a negative effect of the blubber content on the PCB concentrations. Since large fluctuations of body lipids occur between seasons in pinnipeds, PCB measurements should account for the total blubber content to avoid biased results. PCBs with vicinal H-atoms in the o, m or the m, p positions showed in addition a relation with cytochrome P450 enzyme activities. Surprisingly, no effect of sex on the PCB concentrations was observed, probably because female ringed seals, unlike other pinnipeds, continue feeding during lactation. This results in only small amounts of lipid and lipid-associated contaminants being mobilised from the blubber. Consequently, contaminant excretion with the milk will be low. Toxaphene concentrations found were low compared to levels found in the Canadian Arctic. Two congeners, TOX 26 and TOX 50 were predominant (15 and 18%, respectively of total toxaphene). There was no effect of sex, age, total blubber, or cytochrome P450 activities on the toxaphene levels. There was also no correlation between toxaphene and PCB levels, which may indicate differences in exposure and metabolism between these contaminants. Toxaphenes did not bioaccumulate to any substantial extent in ringed seals.
PubMed ID
9618926 View in PubMed
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A database for environmental contaminants in traditional foods in northern and Arctic Canada: development and applications.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature75436
Source
Food Addit Contam. 1998 Feb-Mar;15(2):127-34
Publication Type
Article
Author
H M Chan
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition, McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Food Addit Contam. 1998 Feb-Mar;15(2):127-34
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Canada
Chlordan - analysis
Databases, Factual
Environmental Pollutants
Fishes
Food Contamination
Meat - analysis
Mercury - analysis
Plants - chemistry
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Toxaphene - analysis
Abstract
The potential health effects of environmental contaminants in traditional food has become a concern among northern communities because of the presence of environmental contaminants in the Arctic ecosystem. Exposure assessments are needed but they require comprehensive dietary information and contaminant data. Over the last 10 years, there has been considerable effort to monitor the level of contaminants in fish and wildlife collected from different regions in northern and Arctic Canada. The development of a database and its application for dietary contaminant exposure assessment are described. We conducted an extensive literature review on levels of environmental contaminants in northern and Arctic Canada. The ranges of levels of four contaminants of major concern (chlordane, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls and toxaphene) in 81 species of marine mammals, terrestrial mammals, birds, fish and plants are summarized. These data represent 69% of the 117 species of fish, wildlife and plants mentioned in our dietary interviews conducted in the northern communities. A significant percentage of the foods had contaminant levels exceeding the guidelines used by Health Canada for market food consumed by the 'southern' populations. Mathematic modelling of the distributions of the data showed that contaminant levels in most food groups are log-normally distributed and have a typical coefficient of variation of about 100%. Examples are presented to demonstrate the use of the data for contaminant exposure assessment. Average contaminant exposure levels estimated using the database for two communities are comparable to those obtained previously using community specific data. With the current knowledge of environmental contaminant levels in the northern traditional food system, it may be feasible to conduct preliminary risk assessment of dietary exposure of environmental contaminants when some diet information for a community is available. Further sampling and analysis may be needed only for confirmation purposes.
PubMed ID
9602917 View in PubMed
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Environmental occurrence, analysis, and toxicology of toxaphene compounds.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature202228
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Feb;107 Suppl 1:115-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1999
Author
H J de Geus
H. Besselink
A. Brouwer
J. Klungsøyr
B. McHugh
E. Nixon
G G Rimkus
P G Wester
J. de Boer
Author Affiliation
DLO-Netherlands Institute for Fisheries Research, IJmuiden, The Netherlands. henkj@rivo.dlo.nl
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Feb;107 Suppl 1:115-44
Date
Feb-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Biodiversity
Brain - drug effects
Chromatography, Gas
Drugs, Chinese Herbal - chemistry
Endocrine Glands - drug effects
Food analysis
Humans
Kidney - drug effects
Liver - drug effects
Mass Spectrometry
Stereoisomerism
Terminology as Topic
Thuja
Toxaphene - analysis - chemistry - toxicity
Abstract
Toxaphene production, in quantities similar to those of polychlorinated biphenyls, has resulted in high toxaphene levels in fish from the Great Lakes and in Arctic marine mammals (up to 10 and 16 microg g-1 lipid). Because of the large variabiliity in total toxaphene data, few reliable conclusions can be drawn about trends or geographic differences in toxaphene concentrations. New developments in mass spectrometric detection using either negative chemical ionization or electron impact modes as well as in multidimensional gas chromatography recently have led researchers to suggest congener-specific approaches. Recently, several nomenclature systems have been developed for toxaphene compounds. Although all systems have specific advantages and limitations, it is suggested that an international body such as the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry make an attempt to obtain uniformity in the literature. Toxicologic information on individual chlorobornanes is scarce, but some reports have recently appeared. Neurotoxic effects of toxaphene exposure such as those on behavior and learning have been reported. Technical toxaphene and some individual congeners were found to be weakly estrogenic in in vitro test systems; no evidence for endocrine effects in vivo has been reported. In vitro studies show technical toxaphene and toxaphene congeners to be mutagenic. However, in vivo studies have not shown genotoxicity; therefore, a nongenotoxic mechanism is proposed. Nevertheless, toxaphene is believed to present a potential carcinogenic risk to humans. Until now, only Germany has established a legal tolerance level for toxaphene--0.1 mg kg-1 wet weight for fish.
Notes
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PubMed ID
10229713 View in PubMed
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Evaluation of the population distribution of dietary contaminant exposure in an Arctic population using Monte Carlo statistics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4874
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Mar;105(3):316-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1997
Author
H M Chan
P R Berti
O. Receveur
H V Kuhnlein
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment, McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Mar;105(3):316-21
Date
Mar-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arctic Regions
Chlordan - analysis
Demography
Diet
Female
Food Contamination - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Insecticides - analysis
Inuits
Male
Meat - analysis
Mercury - analysis
Monte Carlo Method
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Toxaphene - analysis
Abstract
Organochlorines and heavy metals have bioaccumulated in Arctic wildlife, which is an important food source for the Inuit. In this study, we have developed a statistical model to describe the population distribution of contaminant exposure and the usual intake of the high-end contaminant consumers. Monte Carlo methods are used to account for variations due to seasonal dietary pattern and contaminant concentrations. Distribution of the dietary intake of the contaminants of most concern-mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordane, and toxaphenes-are described. Over 50% of the residents had dietary exposure levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake or provisional tolerable daily intake for Hg, toxaphene, and chlordane (83, 91, and 71% for men and 73, 85, and 56% for women, respectively). The high-end consumers (i.e. the 95th centile) have intake levels 6 times higher than the provisional tolerable weekly intake of Hg, and over 20 times the tolerable daily intake of chlordane and toxaphene. Assessment of health risks of the relative high contaminant exposure in this community must also consider the nutritional, economical, cultural, and social importance of these traditional foods. A comprehensive risk management scheme has yet to be developed.
PubMed ID
9171993 View in PubMed
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Geographic variation of chlorinated pesticides, toxaphenes and PCBs in human milk from sub-arctic and arctic locations in Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4478
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2003 May 1;306(1-3):179-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-2003
Author
A. Polder
J O Odland
A. Tkachev
S. Føreid
T N Savinova
J U Skaare
Author Affiliation
The Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Department of Pharmacology, PO Box 8146 Dep, N-0033 Oslo, Norway. anuschla.polder@veths.no
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2003 May 1;306(1-3):179-95
Date
May-1-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Arctic Regions
Birth weight
Breast Feeding
Female
Geography
Humans
Infant Welfare
Infant, Newborn
Insecticides - analysis
Milk, human - chemistry
Parity
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Pregnancy
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Russia
Toxaphene - analysis
Abstract
The concentrations of HCB, alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCH, 3 chlordanes (CHLs), p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, and 30 PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) were determined in 140 human milk samples from Kargopol (n=19), Severodvinsk (n=50), Arkhangelsk (n=51) and Naryan-Mar (n=20). Pooled samples were used for determination of three toxaphenes (chlorobornanes, CHBs). The concentrations of HCB, beta-HCH and p,p'-DDE in Russian human milk were 2, 10 and 3 times higher than corresponding levels in Norway, respectively, while concentrations of sum-PCBs and sum-TEQs (toxic equivalent quantities) of the mono-ortho substituted PCBs were in the same range as corresponding levels in Norway. The PCB-156 contributed most to the sum-TEQs. Highest mean concentrations of HCB (129 microg/kg milk fat) and sum-PCBs (458 microg/kg milk fat) were detected in Naryan-Mar, while highest mean concentrations of sum-HCHs (408 microg/kg milk fat), sum-CHLs (48 microg/kg milk fat), sum-DDTs (1392 microg/kg milk fat) and sum-toxaphenes (13 microg/kg milk fat) were detected in Arkhangelsk. An eastward geographic trend of increasing ratios of alpha/beta-HCH, gamma/beta-HCH, p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and PCB-180/28 was observed. In all areas the levels of sum-HCHs decreased with parity (number of children born). Considerable variation in levels of the analysed organochlorines (OCs) was found in all the studied areas. Breast milk from mothers nursing their second or third child (multiparas) in Naryan-Mar showed a significant different PCB profile compared to mothers giving birth to their first child (primiparas) from the same area and to primi- and multiparas in the other areas. Both p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT showed a significant, but weak, negative correlation with the infants birth weight.
PubMed ID
12699926 View in PubMed
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Influence of diet and other factors on the levels of organochlorine compounds in human adipose tissue in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature241215
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health. 1984;13(4-6):689-704
Publication Type
Article
Date
1984
Author
H. Mussalo-Rauhamaa
H. Pyysalo
R. Moilanen
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health. 1984;13(4-6):689-704
Date
1984
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - analysis
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Animals
Breast Feeding
Child
Child, Preschool
DDT - analysis
Diet
Female
Finland
Fishes
Food Habits
Heptachlor - analysis
Humans
Infant
Insecticides - analysis
Male
Middle Aged
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Pregnancy
Smoking
Toxaphene - analysis
Abstract
One hundred and five human adipose tissue samples were recovered during surgical operations or postmorten examinations of patients experiencing death due to traumatic injury. The sample donors were between the ages of 2 mo and 91 yr. Samples were analyzed by GLC-MS techniques for polychlorobiophenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) compounds, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, and chlorinated phenols. Special attention was paid to the concentration of hepatchlor epoxide, a metabolite of heptachlor, commonly used as an insecticide in the Finnish plywood industry. The mean concentrations of PCB, DTTs, HCB, and chlordanes were 0.26, 0.33, 0.02, and 0.007 mg/kg fresh weight, respectively, while the mean concentration of heptachlor epoxide was 2.3 micrograms/kg. The geometric means were 0.20, 0.28, 0.018, 0.0055, and 0.002 mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of PCB and DDT compounds in Finnish human adipose tissue has rapidly decreased during the last 10 yr. The average concentrations were higher in south Finland than those in north Finland, and the results clearly indicate the prominent influence of fish meals and the age of sample donors on the pollutant concentrations in adipose tissue. The results were further analyzed and discussed with respect to sex, smoking habits, and number of childbirths of the sample donors.
PubMed ID
6436503 View in PubMed
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Investigations of the potential influence of environmental contaminants on the thymus and spleen of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6631
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2005 Jun 1;39(11):3933-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1-2005
Author
Andreas Beineke
Ursula Siebert
Michael McLachlan
Regina Bruhn
Kristina Thron
Klaus Failing
Gundi Müller
Wolfgang Baumgärtner
Author Affiliation
Institut für Pathologie, Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover, 30559 Hannover, Germany. andreas.beineke@tiho-hannover.de
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2005 Jun 1;39(11):3933-8
Date
Jun-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
DDT - analysis - metabolism
Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane - analysis - metabolism
Geography
Germany
Lymphocyte Depletion
North Sea
Polybrominated Biphenyls - analysis - metabolism
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - metabolism
Porpoises - metabolism
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Spleen - drug effects - metabolism
Thymus Gland - drug effects - metabolism
Toxaphene - analysis - metabolism
Water Pollutants, Chemical - metabolism - toxicity
Abstract
Harbor porpoises from the German North and Baltic Seas exhibit a higher incidence of bacterial infections compared to whales from less polluted arctic waters. The potential adverse effect of environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals on the immune system and the health status of marine mammals is still discussed controversially. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible influence of PCB, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), toxaphene, (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl)trichlorethane (DDT), and (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl)dichlorethene (DDE) on the immune system of harbor porpoises. Lymphoid organs are influenced by a variety of factors, and therefore special emphasis was given to separating the confounding effect of age, health status, nutritional state, geographical location, and sex from the effect of contaminant levels upon thymus and spleen. Contaminant analysis and detailed pathological examinations were conducted on 61 by-caught and stranded whales from the North and Baltic Seas and Icelandic and Norwegian waters. Stranded harbor porpoises were more severely diseased than by-caught animals. Thymic atrophy and splenic depletion were significantly correlated to increased PCB and PBDE levels. However, lymphoid depletion was also associated with emaciation and an impaired health status. The present report supports the hypothesis of a contaminant-induced immunosuppression, possibly contributing to disease susceptibility in harbor porpoises. However, further studies are needed to determine if lymphoid depletion is primarily contaminant-induced or secondary to disease and emaciation in this cetacean species.
PubMed ID
15984767 View in PubMed
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Organochlorine contaminant and stable isotope profiles in Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) from the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature75413
Source
Environ Pollut. 2003;122(3):423-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
P F Hoekstra
B M Braune
T M O'Hara
B. Elkin
K R Solomon
D C G Muir
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G2W1. paul.hoekstra@ec.gc.ca
Source
Environ Pollut. 2003;122(3):423-33
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Arctic Regions
Canada
Chlorobenzenes - analysis
DDT - analysis
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Foxes - metabolism
Insecticides - analysis
Lindane - analysis
Liver - chemistry
Muscle, Skeletal - chemistry
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Toxaphene - analysis
Abstract
Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) is a circumpolar species distributed across northern Canada and Alaska. Arctic fox muscle and liver were collected at Barrow, AK, USA (n=18), Holman, NT, Canada (n=20), and Arviat, NU, Canada (n=20) to elucidate the feeding ecology of this species and relate these findings to body residue patterns of organochlorine contaminants (OCs). Stable carbon (delta 13C) and nitrogen (delta 15N) isotope analyses of Arctic fox muscle indicated that trophic position (estimated by delta 15N) is positively correlated with increasing delta 13C values, suggesting that Arctic fox with a predominantly marine-based foraging strategy occupy a higher trophic level than individuals mostly feeding from a terrestrial-based carbon source. At all sites, the rank order for OC groups in muscle was polychlorinated biphenyls (Sigma PCB) > chlordane-related compounds (Sigma CHLOR) > hexachlorocyclohexane (Sigma HCH) > total toxaphene (TOX) > or = chlorobenzenes (Sigma ClBz) > DDT-related isomers (Sigma DDT). In liver, Sigma CHLOR was the most abundant OC group, followed by Sigma PCB > TOX > Sigma HCH > Sigma ClBz > Sigma DDT. The most abundant OC analytes detected from Arctic fox muscle and liver were oxychlordane, PCB-153, and PCB-180. The comparison of delta 15N with OC concentrations indicated that relative trophic position might not accurately predict OC bioaccumulation in Arctic fox. The bioaccumulation pattern of OCs in the Arctic fox is similar to the polar bear. While Sigma PCB concentrations were highly variable, concentrations in the Arctic fox were generally below those associated with the toxicological endpoints for adverse effects on mammalian reproduction. Further research is required to properly elucidate the potential health impacts to this species from exposure to OCs.
PubMed ID
12547532 View in PubMed
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Organochlorine residues in marine mammals from the northern hemisphere--a consideration of the composition of organochlorine residues in the blubber of marine mammals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6841
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1996 Jul 16;186(1-2):29-39
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-16-1996
Author
W. Vetter
B. Luckas
G. Heidemann
K. Skírnisson
Author Affiliation
Friedrich-Schiller-Universität-Jena, Institut für Ernährung und Umwelt, Germany.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1996 Jul 16;186(1-2):29-39
Date
Jul-16-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Aging
Animals
Arctic Regions
Chlordan - analysis - metabolism
Comparative Study
DDT - analysis - metabolism
Dolphins - metabolism
Female
Germany
Iceland
Insecticides - analysis - metabolism
Lindane - analysis - metabolism
Male
Mass Fragmentography
North Sea
Pesticide Residues - analysis - metabolism
Poisoning - mortality
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - metabolism
Seals, Earless - metabolism
Sex Factors
Species Specificity
Stereoisomerism
Toxaphene - analysis - metabolism
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - metabolism
Abstract
Levels of organochlorines (PCBs, sigma DDT, lindane and its isomers, HCB, chlordane, and toxaphene) were determined in blubber of marine mammals from the northern hemisphere. Differences in both levels and ratios of organochlorine compounds were detected in different species of marine mammals living in the same region, e.g. blubber of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) accumulated significantly lower levels of lindane, HCB, toxaphene, and DDT and its metabolites than harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). Compared to such elementary differences in the organochlorine pattern in different marine mammals, the influence of age and sex on the results was only minimal. Varying ratios of contaminants in individual harbour porpoises were explained by migration. Constant PCB/DDT ratios were measured in harbour seals. Due to the sedentariness of harbour seals, even local sources of contaminants could be recognized. Careful evaluation of the organochlorine levels and ratios in marine mammals made it possible to monitor the transport of PCBs from the European continent to European Arctic regions.
PubMed ID
8685708 View in PubMed
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Toxaphene, PCB, DDT, and Chlordane Analyses of Beluga whale blubber.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4546
Source
Chemosphere. 1997 Mar-Apr;34(5-7):1351-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
T L Wade
L. Chambers
P R Gardinall
J L Serlcano
T J Jackson
R J Tarpley
R. Suydam
Author Affiliation
Geochemical and Environmental Research Group, Texas A&M University, College Station 77845, USA.
Source
Chemosphere. 1997 Mar-Apr;34(5-7):1351-7
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - chemistry
Aging - metabolism
Animals
Chlordan - analysis
DDT - analysis
Female
Food analysis
Food Contamination
Humans
Insecticides - analysis
Male
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Pesticide Residues - analysis
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Pregnancy
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Toxaphene - analysis
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Whales
Abstract
Beluga whales bioaccumulate organochlorines from their environment. Blubber samples of Beluga Whales from Alaska's north coast contain organochlorines, including Toxaphene (polychlorinated camphenes) PCBs, DDTs and chlordane. Toxaphene was the organochlorine pesticide found in the highest concentration in all samples with the exception of the 6 year old male where PCBs were highest. The source of these organochlorines is likely global distillation from lower latitudes. Males had higher concentrations than females and the oldest male had higher concentration than the younger male. Females exhibit a decrease in concentrations with age. The fetus had about 10% higher concentrations for all organochlorines compared to the mother. Transplacental transfer of organochlorines and lactation lower the contaminant concentration in females. Older females have lower contaminate concentrations likely due to continual reproductive success. Consumption of older males will expose humans to higher levels of organochlorines.
PubMed ID
9134674 View in PubMed
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