The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether periodontal condition is associated with hypertension and systolic blood pressure.
The study population consisted of dentate, non-diabetic, non-smoking individuals aged 30-49 years (n = 1296) in the national Health 2000 Survey in Finland. The number of teeth with deepened (=4 mm) and deep (=6 mm) periodontal pockets and the number of sextants with gingival bleeding were used as explanatory variables. Hypertension and systolic blood pressure were used as outcome variables.
There was no consistent association between the number of teeth with deepened (=4 mm) (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.01) or deep (=6 mm) (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.90-1.12) periodontal pockets and hypertension after adjusting for confounding factors. Nor was there any essential association between the number of bleeding sextants and hypertension.
Periodontal pocketing and gingival bleeding did not appear to be related to hypertension in non-diabetic, non-smoking individuals aged 30-49 years. Further studies using experimental study designs would be required to determine the role of infectious periodontal diseases in the development or progression of hypertension.
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of smoking and snuffing habits in association with dental caries occurrence in a male cohort born in the early 1990s in Finland. The impact of health behaviours and factors related to the place of residence were included in analyses.
Oral health of 8537 conscripts was screened in a cross-sectional study. In the same occasion they also answered a questionnaire covering their smoking and snuffing habits and other background factors. The residence-related factors were obtained from the Defence Forces' database. Cross-tabulation together with chi-squared test and generalized linear mixed models were used for analyses.
Almost forty per cent (39.4%) of the men reported smoking daily and 9.0% reported daily snuffing. Restorative treatment need of those who reported frequent smoking was more than 2-fold (mean DT = 2.22) compared to the non-smokers (mean DT = 1.07). Smoking was statistically significantly associated with other harmful health behaviours. The snuffers reported more snacking than the non-smokers, but were most frequent brushers. The result from the statistical modelling showed that smoking, low tooth brushing frequency, eating sweets and consuming energy drinks frequently were significantly associated with restorative treatment need.
In this cross-sectional study, association between smoking and dental caries was distinct. The high rate of restorative treatment need among smokers may be explained by their poor health behaviours. Dietary habits of the snuffers seem harmful too, but are compensated by good tooth brushing frequency.
Apart from the effects of vitamin D on bone metabolism, it is also known for its immunomodulatory properties. However, so far, it is not clear whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] exerts any beneficial effect on the periodontium. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether the serum level of 25(OH)D is related to periodontal condition, measured by means of pocketing and gingival bleeding.
This cross-sectional study is based on a non-smoking subpopulation without diabetes of the Finnish Health 2000 Survey (N = 1,262). Periodontal condition was measured as the number of teeth with deep (=4 mm) periodontal pockets and the number of bleeding sextants per individual. Serum 25(OH)D level was determined by means of a standard laboratory measurement. Prevalence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Poisson regression models.
There were practically no associations between serum 25(OH)D level and teeth with deep (=4 mm) periodontal pockets or bleeding sextants. A somewhat lower proportion of teeth with deep periodontal pockets was found in higher serum 25(OH)D quintiles among individuals with a good oral hygiene level.
Serum 25(OH)D did not seem to be related to periodontal condition, measured as periodontal pocketing and gingival bleeding in this low-risk, low-25(OH)D status population.
To study the associations of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and the handgrip strength with oral self-care among dentate home-dwelling elderly people in Finland.
The study analysed data for 168 dentate participants (mean age 80.6 years) in the population-based Geriatric Multidisciplinary Strategy for Good Care of the Elderly (GeMS) study. Each participant received a clinical oral examination and structured interview in 2004-2005. Functional status was assessed using the IADL scale and handgrip strength was measured using handheld dynamometry.
Study participants with high IADL (scores 7-8) had odds ratios (ORs) for brushing their teeth at least twice a day of 2.7 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.1-6.8], for using toothpaste at least twice a day of 2.0 (CI 0.8-5.2) and for having good oral hygiene of 2.8 (CI 1.0-8.3) when compared with participants with low IADL (scores =6). Participants in the upper tertiles of the handgrip strength had ORs for brushing the teeth at least twice a day of 0.9 (CI 0.4-1.9), for using the toothpaste at least twice a day of 0.9 (CI 0.4-1.8) and for good oral hygiene of 1.1 (CI 0.5-2.4) in comparison with the study subjects in the lowest tertile of handgrip strength.
The results of this study suggest that the functional status, measured by means of the IADL scale, but not handgrip strength, is an important determinant of oral self-care among the home-dwelling elderly.
The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes to and experiences of dental care in a population, born 1942. The following items were studied: opinions of general and oral health, attitudes to and experiences of dental care, dental care habits, experiences of latest visit to a dentist, tobacco habits and use of various dental hygiene articles. A cross-sectional mail questionnaire was sent in 1992 to all 50-year-olds in two Swedish counties, Orebro and Ostergotland, totally 8888 persons; the response rate was 71%. Of the population 89%, indicated good health. Satisfaction with dental care was high, 94%. 26% stated attendance to a dentist twice or more per year, and 64% at least once a year. As to expenses, 78% paid less than 1000 SEK the last year. Concerning the latest visit, 38% reported painless treatment, 37% no inconvenience, and 55% good care. The duration of the latest visit included on an average 27 min in travel time, 7 min in waiting time and 27 min in treatment time. Information about oral hygiene was given to 29% and about cost for treatment to 47% of the interviewed. There were 28% daily smokers. Snuff was daily used by 10% of the males. Toothbrushing twice a day with fluoride toothpaste seemed to be the standard oral hygiene procedure and was reported by 80% of the respondents.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the caries status of 5-year-olds in a low caries area, and study associations between dental caries and parent-related factors: parents' education, national origin, oral health behaviours and attitudes. METHODS: The material consisted of 523 children and was a stratified random sample. Clinical and radiographic examination was performed in 2007. Enamel and dentine caries were recorded at surface level. Parents filled in questionnaires regarding socioeconomic status, their own oral health behaviours and attitudes. RESULTS: Most participants (66%) had no caries experience and 16% had enamel caries only. Dentine caries experience was present in 18% of the children, and 5% had dentine caries experience in five or more teeth. Surfaces with enamel caries constituted half of all surfaces with caries experience. In multiple logistic regression, statistically significant risk indicators for the child having dentine caries experience at the age of five were: having one or both parents of non-western origin (OR = 4.8), both parents (OR = 3.0) or one parent (OR = 2.1) with low education, parental laxness about the child's tooth brushing (OR = 2.8), parents' brushing their own teeth less than twice a day (OR = 2.2) and having parents with frequent sugar intakes (OR = 1.8). CONCLUSION: Caries prevalence in 5-year-olds was strongly associated with parent-related factors signifying that information on parents' socioeconomic status, dental behaviours and attitudes should be considered when planning dental services for young children. Our results suggest that the real high risk group is non-western children whose parents have low education.
This study assesses the prevalence of caries and some background factors in 4-year-old children in the city of Umeå, northern Sweden, and compares this with data from earlier studies to reveal changes over time.
Children from the catchment areas of three Public Dental Health Service clinics in Umeå (n = 224) born during the third quarter of 2008 were invited to undergo a clinical dental examination. Decayed surfaces (including both dentine and enamel, except for enamel lesions on buccal and lingual surfaces), missing and filled surfaces (dmfs) were recorded using the same methods and criteria as in a series of earlier studies performed between 1980-2007. Background data were collected in a case-history and a questionnaire. Results. The proportion of children with caries significantly decreased from 2007 (38%) to 2012 (22%) (p 0.05). An immigrant background was associated with a lower frequency of tooth brushing and a higher intake of ice cream, sweets and chocolate drinks (p
In cross-sectional studies conducted in 1967, 1971, 1976, 1980, 1987, 1992, 1997 and 2002, 4-year-old children in Umeå, a city in northern Sweden, were examined for dental caries and background factors such as oral hygiene habits, use of fluorides, and sugar consumption. The same methods and criteria have been used in each of the studies from 1967 to 2002. The number of children with caries had declined from 87% in 1967 to 42% in 1987, but then the decline levelled out. In 2002, 46% of the children had caries with a mean dmfs value of 2.0 +/- 3.6. Six percent of the children had 10 or more dmfs. Immigrant children had a higher caries prevalence (p
To determine changes in the prevalence of dental fluorosis, and in perceptions of aesthetic concerns due to dental fluorosis after water fluoridation ceased.
Schoolchildren in second and third grades were examined in 1993-94, 1996-97 and 2002-03 to determine changes in the prevalence of dental fluorosis following fluoridation cessation of the public water supplies in 1992. The Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index (TFI) was used to quantify dental fluorosis. Perceptions of aesthetics were assessed by questionnaires which were sent home to parents. Residence and dental histories were confirmed on all children to determine the extent of exposure to all types of fluorides. Comparisons between the three surveys were used to establish the influence of fluoridated water and other fluoride sources on the occurrence and severity of dental fluorosis. Aesthetic ratings from parents were used to assess the aesthetic conditions of maxillary anterior teeth across the three surveys.
When fluoride was removed from the water supply in 1992, the prevalence and severity of TFI scores decreased significantly from the 1993-94 survey cycle when compared with the 1996-97 and 2002-03 survey cycles. The use of fluoride supplements and fluoride dentifrice also decreased during this study period. Analyses were unable to determine the influence of these different fluoride exposures on the changes in TFI scores over time. Comparisons of aesthetic ratings from parents between survey cycles failed to show any significant differences.
To analyse the prevalence of Dental Anxiety (DA) in the general adult population of Sweden, to study concomitant factors of DA and also to compare the prevalence of DA in 1962 with that in 2013.
The national study for 2013 included 3,500 individuals, randomly selected from the Swedish population. The data sampling was performed as a telephone survey including 38 questions and this report is a selection of those questions with the focus on DA. The national study from 1962 was a face-to-face survey of 1,331 individuals randomly selected from the Swedish population. Both surveys were conducted by the same company.
In 2013, severe DA was reported in 4.7%, moderate DA in 4.5%, low DA in 9.8% and no DA in 80.9% of the subjects. Most (72.9%) of the subjects who reported severe DA attended dental care regularly. Important predictive factors of DA were age, gender, education, and self-rated poor oral and general health. The analysis showed a decrease in the prevalence of DA between 1962 and 2013, specifically a change towards more individuals reporting no dental anxiety (38.5% vs. 80.9%) but also smaller proportions of individuals having low and high DA (46.4% vs 9.8% and 15.1% vs 9.2%, respectively).
In this national representative sample of Swedish adults the prevalence of severe DA was 4.7%. The main finding revealed a significant decrease of the prevalence of DA over 50 years.