The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes to and experiences of dental care in a population, born 1942. The following items were studied: opinions of general and oral health, attitudes to and experiences of dental care, dental care habits, experiences of latest visit to a dentist, tobacco habits and use of various dental hygiene articles. A cross-sectional mail questionnaire was sent in 1992 to all 50-year-olds in two Swedish counties, Orebro and Ostergotland, totally 8888 persons; the response rate was 71%. Of the population 89%, indicated good health. Satisfaction with dental care was high, 94%. 26% stated attendance to a dentist twice or more per year, and 64% at least once a year. As to expenses, 78% paid less than 1000 SEK the last year. Concerning the latest visit, 38% reported painless treatment, 37% no inconvenience, and 55% good care. The duration of the latest visit included on an average 27 min in travel time, 7 min in waiting time and 27 min in treatment time. Information about oral hygiene was given to 29% and about cost for treatment to 47% of the interviewed. There were 28% daily smokers. Snuff was daily used by 10% of the males. Toothbrushing twice a day with fluoride toothpaste seemed to be the standard oral hygiene procedure and was reported by 80% of the respondents.
The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of EFD lesions in relation to some background factors in Finnish and Soviet children. Children aged 7, 9 and 12 years (n = 1187) were examined clinically in Helsinki, Kuopio (Finland), Moscow and Leningrad (USSR). A questionnaire sent to the parents was used to collect data on toothbrushing frequency, use of sweets, cakes, soft drinks, sugar-sweetened tea/coffee and mother's education. In addition to bivariate analysis, log-linear regression models were used for comparing the simultaneous association in two ethnic groups. In general, the Finnish children had more EFD lesions than the Soviet children did. Among the Finns no consistent associations were found between the number of EFD lesions and the use of different sugar products or differences in toothbrushing habits. The number of EFD lesions decreased consistently according to mother's education with the Finnish children, but not with the Soviet children. The final multivariate model for Finnish children included age, toothbrushing frequency, place of residence (Kuopio) and use of soft drinks. The respective model for the Soviet children included age and place of residence (Leningrad). Evidently, the demineralization process or tooth resistance differs in these two ethnic groups.
Two hundred and forty-nine 4-year-old children were examined for dental caries, and data were collected on frequency of toothbrushing, use of fluorides, and intake of nine different snack products. Dental caries experience of children who brushed once or twice daily with parental help was significantly lower than that of children who brushed irregularly. The intake of snacks was high. Buns and cakes, ice cream, and sweet beverages were consumed more often than sweets. Children who had high snack intakes and brushed irregularly had significantly higher caries experience than those with low snack intakes and regular toothbrushing. Therefore irregular toothbrushing was shown to potentiate the impact of frequent snacking.
A controlled study was carried out in mid-Sweden with the aim of comparing oral self-care and self-perceived oral health in 102 randomly sampled type 2 diabetic patients with that of 102 age-and-gender-matched non-diabetic controls. Oral health variables were also related to glycemic control (HbA1c), duration, anti-diabetic treatment, and late complications. Questionnaires were used to collect data on oral self-care and self-perceived oral health. Diabetes-related variables were extracted from medical records. Eighty-five percent of the diabetic subjects had never received information about the relation between diabetes and oral health, and 83% were unaware of the link. Forty-eight percent believed that the dentist/ dental hygienist did not know of their having diabetes. Most individuals, but fewer in the diabetic group, were regular visitors to dental care and the majority felt unaffected when confronted with dental services. More than 90% in both groups brushed their teeth daily and more than half of those with natural teeth did proximal cleaning. Subjects in the diabetic group as well as in the control group were content with their teeth and mouth (83% vs 85%. Those with solely natural teeth and those with complete removable dentures expressed most satisfaction. Sensation of dry mouth was common among diabetic patients (54%) and subjects with hypertension exhibited dry mouth to a greater extent (65%) than those who were normotensive. Our principal conclusion is that efforts should be made to give information about diabetes as a risk factor for oral health from dental services to diabetic patients and diabetes staff.
AIM: Our aim was to investigate whether cynical hostility, self-reported toothbrushing frequency and objectively assessed levels of oral hygiene were associated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study sample consisted of 4156 30-64-year-old dentate Finns. The questionnaire and the home interview included information about socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors and behavioural variables, such as toothbrushing frequency, dental attendance, smoking and cynical hostility. The level of oral hygiene was assessed during a clinical oral examination. The chi(2) test and ordinal logistic regression analyses were used. RESULTS: After controlling for sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors, smoking habits and reported dental attendance, the subjects belonging to the lowest cynical hostility level were found to brush their teeth significantly more often and to have better oral hygiene compared with those belonging the highest cynical hostility level. Toothbrushing frequency was adjusted when oral hygiene was used as the outcome variable. The association of cynical hostility with toothbrushing frequency and the oral hygiene seems to be partly dependent on the level of education. CONCLUSIONS: Cynical hostility is a psychosocial risk marker for the frequency and quality of toothbrushing and it could be a connecting trait between general health behaviour and oral health behaviour.
Three thousand children aged 18 months were screened for dental caries and ongoing breast-feeding at 46 child welfare centres in different parts of Sweden. Of these, 200 children were selected for a more comprehensive examination, involving investigation of dietary, toothbrushing and sucking habits, use of fluoride, and determination of salivary levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. The children were divided into four groups: group 1: children with caries not being breast-fed; group 2: children with caries being breast-fed; group 3: caries-free children being breast-fed; group 4: caries-free gender- and age-matched reference children not being breast-fed. The results showed that 63 of the children (2.1%) had caries and 61 (2.0%) were still being breast-fed. Twelve (19.7%) of the 61 children still being breast-fed had caries compared with 51 (1.7%) of the 2939 children not being breast-fed; the difference was statistically significant. Children with caries and still being breast-fed had a mean defs of 5.3, and those with caries not being breast-fed 4.9; the difference was not statistically significant. Children with caries, irrespective of whether they were being breast-fed or not, had significantly higher numbers of cariogenic food intakes per day than caries-free children. Mutans streptococci were detected in 67% of the children and lactobacilli in 13%. Children with detectable mutans streptococci and lactobacilli had significantly more caries than those without. The results indicate that Swedish children with prolonged breast-feeding have a tendency to establish unsuitable dietary habits which constitutes a risk situation for developing caries at an early age.
The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of dental caries in 4-year-olds in the town of Umeå in 1987, and compare that data with data from 4-year-olds examined in 1967, 1971, 1976 and 1980/81, using the same diagnostic methods and criteria. The reduction in the mean dmfs value amounting to 75% between 1967 and 1980/81 did not continue up to 1987, but there was an increase in the number of children without caries from 50% in 1980/81 to 58% in 1987. There was also an increase in the proportion of children with 10 or more dmf-surfaces during the same period. The mean value for dmfs remained the same in these years. An analysis was made of the correlation between the frequency of tooth-brushing, use of fluoride toothpaste, snack consumption and the dmfs-value in 1987. A statistically significant difference in mean values for dmfs was found between children who had their teeth brushed greater than or equal to 2/day and less than or equal to 1/day. When fluoride toothpaste was used, the difference was less pronounced. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean intake frequency of snack products among children with and without caries, but a higher proportion of caries-free children was found among those with a low intake frequency of such products.
Objectives: Our aim was to describe the occurrence of dental fear among Finnish children of different ages and to ascertain how oral health and family characteristics are associated with dental fear. Methods: The subject groups were aged 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 years in two middle-sized cities, and the 1474 participants were distributed over fairly equal samples of each age. A questionnaire given to each child to be filled out at home enquired about social background, oral hygiene habits, diet, and dental fear. Oral health status was examined clinically and radiographically by two calibrated dentists. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed for each age group in order to study the associations between dental fear and selected factors. Results: Dental fear was higher among 12- and 15-year-old children than among the younger ones. Pain, drilling, and local anesthesia were reported to be the most frightening aspects. Excluding the 12-year-olds, children whose family members reported dental fear were more likely to report dental fear than children whose family members did not report dental fear. Six- and 12-year-olds who had experienced caries were more likely to report dental fear than were caries-free children. Among 6-year-olds, father's education modified the effect of a child's caries experience on child dental fear. Frequent intake of sugary items and a limit on eating candies to only one day per week were associated with higher dental fear. Conclusions: Fear of dental treatment is still fairly common among Finnish children, and the factors associated with it differ with the age of the child.
Individually, people can prevent dental caries by sugar restriction and periodontal disease by toothbrushing. The aim of this study was to determine the toothbrushing frequency and consumption of sweets and soft drinks in some European countries. The data were obtained during the winter of 1983-84 from schoolchildren aged 11.5, 13.5 and 15.5 in Austria, England, Finland and Norway. Except for England, the samples were nationally representative. The questionnaires were completed at school. Dental health habits apparently were best in Norway, as the toothbrushing frequency was highest and the consumption of sweets and soft drinks was lowest. The toothbrushing frequency of boys was lowest in Finland. The consumption of sweets and soft drinks was very high in Austria and England. Such international comparisons should be used when evaluating and directing national programmes of preventive dentistry.