The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether periodontal condition is associated with hypertension and systolic blood pressure.
The study population consisted of dentate, non-diabetic, non-smoking individuals aged 30-49 years (n = 1296) in the national Health 2000 Survey in Finland. The number of teeth with deepened (=4 mm) and deep (=6 mm) periodontal pockets and the number of sextants with gingival bleeding were used as explanatory variables. Hypertension and systolic blood pressure were used as outcome variables.
There was no consistent association between the number of teeth with deepened (=4 mm) (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.01) or deep (=6 mm) (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.90-1.12) periodontal pockets and hypertension after adjusting for confounding factors. Nor was there any essential association between the number of bleeding sextants and hypertension.
Periodontal pocketing and gingival bleeding did not appear to be related to hypertension in non-diabetic, non-smoking individuals aged 30-49 years. Further studies using experimental study designs would be required to determine the role of infectious periodontal diseases in the development or progression of hypertension.
Smoking is a risk factor for oral diseases and tooth loss. Our aim was to analyze the association between smoking intensity and duration and tooth loss among middle-aged Finnish adults who have enjoyed access to subsidized dental care since childhood.
This study was based on the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966) Project, a representative sample of Finnish 46-year-olds. Altogether 1946 46-year-olds participated in a survey and comprehensive clinical oral examinations. We measured smoking exposure in pack-years (intensity) and years of smoking (duration) combined with recent smoking status (current, former, occasional or never). We used negative binomial regression models to estimate the unadjusted and adjusted relative risks (RR) with corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for tooth loss as an outcome. Gender, education, tooth brushing frequency, dental plaque, diabetes and alcohol use served as explanatory variables for the adjusted models.
Smoking intensity associated with tooth loss in an exposure-dependent manner: those with a high number of pack-years had a significantly greater probability of tooth loss than never smokers: 11-20 pack-years (RR?=?1.55, 95 % CI?=?1.15-2.08) and 21 or more pack-years (RR?=?1.78, 95 % CI?=?1.36-2.33). Smoking duration also associated with tooth loss: those who had smoked for several years had a significantly higher probability of tooth loss than never smokers: 21-30 years of smoking (RR?=?1.66, 95 % CI?=?1.29-2.12) and 31 or more years of smoking (RR?=?1.72, 95 % CI?=?1.20-2.45).
We found a clear intensity- and duration-dependent relation between smoking and tooth loss among adults with access to subsidized dental care and in good oral health.
Cites: Int J Dent Hyg. 2015 Nov;13(4):292-30026294114
All the 1012, 55-yr-old citizens of Oulu (a medium-sized Finnish town) were invited to a clinical examination, and 780 of them participated. The associations of lifestyle with periodontal health were analyzed in the 527 dentate subjects. Periodontal pockets deeper than 3 mm were recorded as a percentage of the surfaces at risk. Lifestyle was measured by questions about dietary habits, smoking habits, alcohol consumption and physical activity. Lifestyle had an independent association with periodontal health. Periodontal pocketing increased with an unhealthier lifestyle. Lifestyle could explain some of the social and sex differences in periodontal health.
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of smoking and snuffing habits in association with dental caries occurrence in a male cohort born in the early 1990s in Finland. The impact of health behaviours and factors related to the place of residence were included in analyses.
Oral health of 8537 conscripts was screened in a cross-sectional study. In the same occasion they also answered a questionnaire covering their smoking and snuffing habits and other background factors. The residence-related factors were obtained from the Defence Forces' database. Cross-tabulation together with chi-squared test and generalized linear mixed models were used for analyses.
Almost forty per cent (39.4%) of the men reported smoking daily and 9.0% reported daily snuffing. Restorative treatment need of those who reported frequent smoking was more than 2-fold (mean DT = 2.22) compared to the non-smokers (mean DT = 1.07). Smoking was statistically significantly associated with other harmful health behaviours. The snuffers reported more snacking than the non-smokers, but were most frequent brushers. The result from the statistical modelling showed that smoking, low tooth brushing frequency, eating sweets and consuming energy drinks frequently were significantly associated with restorative treatment need.
In this cross-sectional study, association between smoking and dental caries was distinct. The high rate of restorative treatment need among smokers may be explained by their poor health behaviours. Dietary habits of the snuffers seem harmful too, but are compensated by good tooth brushing frequency.
The aim of this study was to analyze the association between some general background factors and caries experience in two groups of Finnish children (from Helsinki and Kuopio) and Soviet children (Moscow and Leningrad). A total of 1187 schoolchildren, ages seven, nine and twelve years, were examined and information about their health habits was gathered by questionnaire. Questions included use of sweets, cakes, soft drinks, sugar-sweetened coffee and tea, toothbrushing frequency and mother's education. Except for age, the factors that explain caries experience clearly differ in Finnish and Soviet children.
The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of EFD lesions in relation to some background factors in Finnish and Soviet children. Children aged 7, 9 and 12 years (n = 1187) were examined clinically in Helsinki, Kuopio (Finland), Moscow and Leningrad (USSR). A questionnaire sent to the parents was used to collect data on toothbrushing frequency, use of sweets, cakes, soft drinks, sugar-sweetened tea/coffee and mother's education. In addition to bivariate analysis, log-linear regression models were used for comparing the simultaneous association in two ethnic groups. In general, the Finnish children had more EFD lesions than the Soviet children did. Among the Finns no consistent associations were found between the number of EFD lesions and the use of different sugar products or differences in toothbrushing habits. The number of EFD lesions decreased consistently according to mother's education with the Finnish children, but not with the Soviet children. The final multivariate model for Finnish children included age, toothbrushing frequency, place of residence (Kuopio) and use of soft drinks. The respective model for the Soviet children included age and place of residence (Leningrad). Evidently, the demineralization process or tooth resistance differs in these two ethnic groups.
The adoption of xylitol chewing gum in Finland was studied using data from two comparable postal surveys for national samples of 12- to 18-year-olds in 1977 (response rate 79%, n = 2,528) and 1991 (77%, n = 7,672). In 1977 only 12% of this age group used xylitol chewing gum but, by 1991 it had become common (64% of boys, 81% of girls). Daily use increased from 1 to 15% among boys and from 1 to 32% among girls. Use of sucrose chewing gum decreased; in 1991 only 2% used it daily. Daily use of xylitol chewing gum did not vary according to socioeconomic status or level of urbanization. The increase in use of xylitol chewing gum is an example of the positive effect of health education given by a comprehensive, preventively oriented system of dental health care in association with commercial interests.
The occurrence of dental erosion and the relative importance of some related factors were explored in a cross-sectional study, using blind dental examinations. A sample of 186 workers from four factories was drawn. Among the 157 dentate participants 76 were working in departments containing acid fumes and 81 controls had never worked under such conditions. Out of the dentate participants, 20 (12.7% had erosion). Anterior teeth were affected more often than posterior ones. Exposure to acid fumes, increasing age and frequency of intake of fruits increased the probability of dental erosion. It can be concluded that exposure to acid fumes in the work environment is associated with dental erosion especially on anterior teeth.
Objectives: Our aim was to describe the occurrence of dental fear among Finnish children of different ages and to ascertain how oral health and family characteristics are associated with dental fear. Methods: The subject groups were aged 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 years in two middle-sized cities, and the 1474 participants were distributed over fairly equal samples of each age. A questionnaire given to each child to be filled out at home enquired about social background, oral hygiene habits, diet, and dental fear. Oral health status was examined clinically and radiographically by two calibrated dentists. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed for each age group in order to study the associations between dental fear and selected factors. Results: Dental fear was higher among 12- and 15-year-old children than among the younger ones. Pain, drilling, and local anesthesia were reported to be the most frightening aspects. Excluding the 12-year-olds, children whose family members reported dental fear were more likely to report dental fear than children whose family members did not report dental fear. Six- and 12-year-olds who had experienced caries were more likely to report dental fear than were caries-free children. Among 6-year-olds, father's education modified the effect of a child's caries experience on child dental fear. Frequent intake of sugary items and a limit on eating candies to only one day per week were associated with higher dental fear. Conclusions: Fear of dental treatment is still fairly common among Finnish children, and the factors associated with it differ with the age of the child.
The first two surveys of the dental health of young Finnish men were conducted in 1919 and 1965. The objective of four subsequent surveys (1976, 1981, 1986, and 1991) was to collect both interview and clinical examination data for the monitoring of changes in the oral health status of the recruits. A significant reduction in self-reported toothache, gingival bleeding, and number of decayed teeth was observed from 1976 to 1991. At examination, the numbers of decayed teeth, teeth indicated for extraction, teeth in need of fillings, and missing teeth decreased substantially, as did the teeth with visible plaque, subgingival calculus, and teeth with 4-mm or deeper periodontal pockets. This comprehensive series of successive cross-sectional oral health surveys clearly shows that since 1976 a significant decrease in oral disease and treatment needs has taken place among the Finnish population of young men.