The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes to and experiences of dental care in a population, born 1942. The following items were studied: opinions of general and oral health, attitudes to and experiences of dental care, dental care habits, experiences of latest visit to a dentist, tobacco habits and use of various dental hygiene articles. A cross-sectional mail questionnaire was sent in 1992 to all 50-year-olds in two Swedish counties, Orebro and Ostergotland, totally 8888 persons; the response rate was 71%. Of the population 89%, indicated good health. Satisfaction with dental care was high, 94%. 26% stated attendance to a dentist twice or more per year, and 64% at least once a year. As to expenses, 78% paid less than 1000 SEK the last year. Concerning the latest visit, 38% reported painless treatment, 37% no inconvenience, and 55% good care. The duration of the latest visit included on an average 27 min in travel time, 7 min in waiting time and 27 min in treatment time. Information about oral hygiene was given to 29% and about cost for treatment to 47% of the interviewed. There were 28% daily smokers. Snuff was daily used by 10% of the males. Toothbrushing twice a day with fluoride toothpaste seemed to be the standard oral hygiene procedure and was reported by 80% of the respondents.
In 1999, a dental reform became law in Sweden that regulated both dental care to dependent individuals and training in oral health care for nursing home personnel. Substantial resources have been channelled into these efforts, but the outcome of these efforts has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to explore attitudes to and knowledge about oral health care among nursing home personnel more than 5 years after the law was adopted, that being 2005.
A total of 454 individuals employed at nursing homes answered a questionnaire of 16 multiple-choice items concerning attitudes to and knowledge about oral health care.
Eighty-nine per cent considered oral health care to be an important part of good nursing. The answers indicated problems, however, when it came to its implementation and knowledge, and 35% stated that they had had no formal education in oral health care.
Despite generally positive oral health care attitudes, it is important that oral health care education is available to and made of interest for all nursing home personnel, especially in light of the increase in number of natural teeth and frequency of crowns and bridges among dependent elderly.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the caries status of 5-year-olds in a low caries area, and study associations between dental caries and parent-related factors: parents' education, national origin, oral health behaviours and attitudes. METHODS: The material consisted of 523 children and was a stratified random sample. Clinical and radiographic examination was performed in 2007. Enamel and dentine caries were recorded at surface level. Parents filled in questionnaires regarding socioeconomic status, their own oral health behaviours and attitudes. RESULTS: Most participants (66%) had no caries experience and 16% had enamel caries only. Dentine caries experience was present in 18% of the children, and 5% had dentine caries experience in five or more teeth. Surfaces with enamel caries constituted half of all surfaces with caries experience. In multiple logistic regression, statistically significant risk indicators for the child having dentine caries experience at the age of five were: having one or both parents of non-western origin (OR = 4.8), both parents (OR = 3.0) or one parent (OR = 2.1) with low education, parental laxness about the child's tooth brushing (OR = 2.8), parents' brushing their own teeth less than twice a day (OR = 2.2) and having parents with frequent sugar intakes (OR = 1.8). CONCLUSION: Caries prevalence in 5-year-olds was strongly associated with parent-related factors signifying that information on parents' socioeconomic status, dental behaviours and attitudes should be considered when planning dental services for young children. Our results suggest that the real high risk group is non-western children whose parents have low education.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors related to caries in 6-17-year-olds in 2 groups of Norwegian counties between 1966 and 1983. The average number of surfaces filled and permanent teeth extracted due to caries declined in the 4 northern counties from 1967. An increase was recorded in the 7 southwestern counties until 1971, then a decline. In the 1960s significantly more surfaces were filled and teeth extracted in the north compared to the southwest. Based on intra-county comparisons, the decline in surfaces treated was greater in the north between 1967 and 1983; 5.4 +/- 0.4 vs 3.7 +/- 0.7, P
To determine changes in the prevalence of dental fluorosis, and in perceptions of aesthetic concerns due to dental fluorosis after water fluoridation ceased.
Schoolchildren in second and third grades were examined in 1993-94, 1996-97 and 2002-03 to determine changes in the prevalence of dental fluorosis following fluoridation cessation of the public water supplies in 1992. The Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index (TFI) was used to quantify dental fluorosis. Perceptions of aesthetics were assessed by questionnaires which were sent home to parents. Residence and dental histories were confirmed on all children to determine the extent of exposure to all types of fluorides. Comparisons between the three surveys were used to establish the influence of fluoridated water and other fluoride sources on the occurrence and severity of dental fluorosis. Aesthetic ratings from parents were used to assess the aesthetic conditions of maxillary anterior teeth across the three surveys.
When fluoride was removed from the water supply in 1992, the prevalence and severity of TFI scores decreased significantly from the 1993-94 survey cycle when compared with the 1996-97 and 2002-03 survey cycles. The use of fluoride supplements and fluoride dentifrice also decreased during this study period. Analyses were unable to determine the influence of these different fluoride exposures on the changes in TFI scores over time. Comparisons of aesthetic ratings from parents between survey cycles failed to show any significant differences.
In the past, dental diseases were extremely common in the Scandinavian populations and the tooth loss figures appalling. Developments during the last few decades have led to a high standard of living, a high dentist-population ratio, increased public economic support for dental care and preventive dental care programmes for children. These have contributed to a drastic decrease in caries frequency and severity among the younger groups. Data concerning changes in periodontal disease activity are sparse, but there are indications that more natural teeth are being retained longer. Since prevention and control of periodontal disease is highly dependent upon personal behaviour, investigations of what people know, think and do about the role of the individual in disease control are important to future strategies. This review indicates that the Scandinavian populations have a fair knowledge of dental diseases and the individual's own role in prevention. Most people know what constitutes appropriate daily oral hygiene practice but a gap between knowledge and actual performance is apparently quite common. There is evidence, however, that the frequency of toothbrushing is increasing; so is interdental cleaning, even though the present level is unsatisfactory. The frequency of dental visits is also increasing and it is predicted that more people with more teeth will seek dental care in the future. Regular dental care during childhood seems to be a strong predictor of dental visit patterns and dental health status later in life. The improvements in dental health habits and associated phenomena have resulted in the retention of more teeth in older subjects. This may mean more teeth at risk to periodontal disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The adoption of xylitol chewing gum in Finland was studied using data from two comparable postal surveys for national samples of 12- to 18-year-olds in 1977 (response rate 79%, n = 2,528) and 1991 (77%, n = 7,672). In 1977 only 12% of this age group used xylitol chewing gum but, by 1991 it had become common (64% of boys, 81% of girls). Daily use increased from 1 to 15% among boys and from 1 to 32% among girls. Use of sucrose chewing gum decreased; in 1991 only 2% used it daily. Daily use of xylitol chewing gum did not vary according to socioeconomic status or level of urbanization. The increase in use of xylitol chewing gum is an example of the positive effect of health education given by a comprehensive, preventively oriented system of dental health care in association with commercial interests.
Conceptions among the general public in Finland regarding the etiology and prevention of dental caries and periodontal disorders were surveyed in two interviews in 1971 and 1972. Both population samples interviewed comprised about 1,000 people aged 15 years and over. Inadequate oral hygiene was the most common (65%) possible cause chosen by the subjects among the causes of dental caries. Only 44% of the interviewees considered sugar to be a cause of cariers. Thorough cleaning of the teeth (83%) and dentist's check-ups twice a year (67%) were the factors most frequently chosen in caries prevention. Avoidance of sugar (56%) ranked as the third in frequency. As regards symptoms of periodontal disorders, tender gingiva, gingival bleeding, and loosening of the teeth were correctly suggested as symptoms by 62, 61 and 45%, respectively. Poor oral hygiene (77%) was the cause of gingivitis most commonly chosen by the interviewees, while simultaneous systemic disease (37%) was considered more important than, for example, dental calculus (31%). As regards treatment of periodontal disorders, careful toothcleaning (73%) received most support. However, this factor was closely followed by misconceptions regarding the supposed advantageous value of drug and rinses (50%), chewing of fibrous foods (45%), and vitamin therapy (38%).
A controlled study was carried out in mid-Sweden with the aim of comparing oral self-care and self-perceived oral health in 102 randomly sampled type 2 diabetic patients with that of 102 age-and-gender-matched non-diabetic controls. Oral health variables were also related to glycemic control (HbA1c), duration, anti-diabetic treatment, and late complications. Questionnaires were used to collect data on oral self-care and self-perceived oral health. Diabetes-related variables were extracted from medical records. Eighty-five percent of the diabetic subjects had never received information about the relation between diabetes and oral health, and 83% were unaware of the link. Forty-eight percent believed that the dentist/ dental hygienist did not know of their having diabetes. Most individuals, but fewer in the diabetic group, were regular visitors to dental care and the majority felt unaffected when confronted with dental services. More than 90% in both groups brushed their teeth daily and more than half of those with natural teeth did proximal cleaning. Subjects in the diabetic group as well as in the control group were content with their teeth and mouth (83% vs 85%. Those with solely natural teeth and those with complete removable dentures expressed most satisfaction. Sensation of dry mouth was common among diabetic patients (54%) and subjects with hypertension exhibited dry mouth to a greater extent (65%) than those who were normotensive. Our principal conclusion is that efforts should be made to give information about diabetes as a risk factor for oral health from dental services to diabetic patients and diabetes staff.