This study aimed to analyse education-related inequality in restorative dental treatment need among adults aged 30 years and older living in Northern and Southern Finland in 2000 and 2011.
Data were taken from the Health 2000 and 2011 population-based follow-up surveys, including information gathered by interviews and clinical dental examination. Final effective sample sizes were 2423 people in 2000 and 1192 people in 2011. Restorative dental treatment need was measured with number of decayed and/or fractured teeth (DT + FrT). Education-related inequality in number of DT + FrT and factors explaining it were analysed using the Poisson regression analysis, relative index of inequality and slope index of inequality.
Average number of DT + FrT decreased from 2000 to 2011. Absolute and relative education-related inequalities in them decreased approximately 50% and 25% from 2000 to 2011, respectively. Tooth brushing frequency and time since last dental visit explained approximately 30%-40% of the education-related inequality. The contribution of time since last dental visit to the education-related inequality was smaller in 2011 than in 2000.
It seems that, from 2000 to 2011, the need for restorative dental treatment decreased simultaneously with the education-related inequality in it among adults aged 30 years and older living in Northern and Southern Finland.
We aimed to investigate the habitual consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and sweets in relation to mothers' behaviours and practices with their infants.
We targeted mothers with children 1-24 months (N?=?200) visiting Public Child Health clinics in Finland. During routine visits mothers (N?=?179) volunteered to complete a self-administered anonymous questionnaire about their child's health-related behaviours (consumption of sweets and SSBs, tooth brushing frequency). The questionnaires also included questions about the mothers' background (age, education) and health-related behaviours (consumption of sweets, tooth brushing frequency and smoking habits). The children were categorised by age, and Chi-squared tests, Fischer's exact test, ANOVA and correlation coefficient served for the statistical analyses.
Of those under 6 months, almost half (44%) received SSBs, and 45% of them more than once a week. Their use gradually increased by age such that by 19-24 months, all received SSBs at least sometimes, and 56%, frequently. Fewer than half of the mothers (33-43%) gave sweets to their children between the ages of 10-15 months, but 92% by the age of 2 years. Children's twice-a-day tooth brushing increased from 14% to 33%. The child's age and tooth brushing frequency correlated with the consumption of sugar-sweetened products (r?=?0.458).
Infants frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened products begins early in childhood. Thus, tackling these common risk factors in the first years of life is essential and calls for health-promoting actions in multiple areas that target primarily the parents of infants.
The first aim was to describe presence of plaque, caries and oral health behaviours in 2-year-old children. The second aim was to measure increments in caries experience from 2 to 5 years of age and to study whether national background, visible plaque, caries and oral health behaviour at 2 years of age were associated with increments in caries experience.
The study population consisted of 392 children, of whom 211 were monitored from 2 to 5 years of age. At age 2 years, parents completed a questionnaire about family background and oral health behaviour. The presence of plaque and caries at tooth level was obtained from dental records. Data were tested with chi-square statistics and Mann-Whitney U test. Negative binomial regression analysis was conducted to explore the association between caries increment between 2 and 5 years of age and national background, visible plaque, caries and oral health behaviour at 2 years of age.
Caries was found in 4.6% of 2-year-olds, and 4.6% had visible plaque. More than half of these children (57.9%) brushed twice daily, toothbrushing was introduced when the child was 7 months or older in 61.0% of the children, and 15.6% consumed sugary snacks daily. Non-Western children more often had caries, visible plaque and unfavourable oral health behaviour than Western children (P
Department of Dental Medicine (DENTMED), OF, Division 6, Pedodontics, Box 4064, 141 04, Huddinge, Sweden; Pediatric Dentistry, Public Dental Service, Eastman Institute, Dalagatan 11, SE-11324, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: email@example.com.
This study describes caries progression at tooth-surface level in children from 1 to 3 years of age and the impact of biannual treatment with fluoride varnish.
Children who participated in a cluster-randomized controlled trial and had shown signs of dental caries were included in this study (n=801). International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) was used to classify dental caries. The present study compared children receiving a standard yearly intervention to children receiving the same standard preventive intervention supplemented with an application of fluoride varnish every half year.
The maxillary incisors were the first teeth to develop cavitation (ICDAS 3-6) and also mostly affected. Further analyses focusing on maxillary incisors buccal surfaces showed that sound surfaces had least progression and that progression to extensive decay was more common in teeth that had exhibited moderate decay. A summarizing progression index (PI) was calculated for the buccal surfaces of the maxillary incisors. Between 1 and 2 years of age PI was 26% and between 2 and 3 years of age PI was 21%. The progression on buccal incisors and on occlusal first primary molars did not differ between intervention groups (p=0,05).
No impact on caries progression for biannual treatment with fluoride varnish was found.
Using fluoride varnish as a complement to standard intervention in toddlers did not add in the prevention of dental caries or its progression. The education of parents in the use fluoride toothpaste as they start brushing the teeth of their children is essential.
The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence and distribution of dental caries in an adult population and identify factors associated with being caries free.
Data were collected from a randomized population sample in Northern Norway (N?=?1932; 988 women; mean age 47.0 years, SD 15.3). The study included a structured questionnaire and a clinical examination. The sum of enamel and dentine caries, DS1-5, formed the main outcome measures for caries prevalence.
Mean DMFT was 15.1 (95% CI 14.8, 15.4), mean DFT was 12.0 (CI 11.7, 12.2), and mean DT was 1.1 (CI 1.0, 1.2). The mean value for dentine caries (DS3-5) was 0.8 (CI 0.7, 0.9), and mean DS1-5 was 3.8 (CI 3.6, 4.1). Mean DS1-5 was highest in the youngest age group (mean 6.9, 95% CI 6.3, 7.6) and in rural areas (mean 5.0, CI 4.4, 5.6). The most caries-prone 20% in the youngest age group had 52% of the total number of carious lesions compared with 80% in the two oldest age groups. Tooth brushing twice daily (p?=?.005), drinking sugar containing soft drink (p?=.029), and attending dental services every year (p?
This study aimed to monitor mineralization changes in initial caries lesions on newly erupted second molars using laser fluorescence (LF) scanning after a 1-month targeted tooth brushing intervention.
Altogether, 124 13- to 14-year-old school children were invited to participate. Of those who fulfilled the clinical criteria (at least one initial lesion with LF value >10 in second molars), 51 gave their written consent to participate. Laser fluorescence values were registered at baseline and after 1-month follow-up period. All participants were individually taught targeted tooth brushing of their second molars and randomly provided tooth paste with 0 or 1500 ppm fluoride. Brushing frequency was investigated at baseline and after the follow-up. Change in LF values was compared considering the tooth, content of fluoride in the paste and brushing frequency.
In lesions with LF values =30 at baseline, change in LF values demonstrated improvement. Improvement was detected especially in upper molars. In lesions with LF values >30 at baseline, improvement was least detected. Brushing frequency increased slightly during the intervention.
Laser fluorescence is a simple method and useful in monitoring remineralization of incipient lesions even in weeks. Targeted tooth brushing seems to induce remineralization even in weeks. Laser fluorescence could be a valuable motivating tool in promoting patients' self-care.
To assess associations between oral health behaviour and physical activity and related factors among adolescents.
The study population (n = 76 529) consisted of a representative sample of 16- to 18-year-old Finnish adolescents (boys: 37 211, girls: 39 318). An anonymous, confidential and voluntary classroom-administered questionnaire included questions about tooth brushing frequency, physical activity, BMI and eating habits. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was used to assess the adolescents' physical activity. The chi-square test and multiple binary logistic regression were used for statistical analyses. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for MVPA, BMI, breakfast, smoking and socioeconomic factors as parents' education and school type.
The prevalence of twice daily tooth brushing was highest among adolescents reporting 4 hours or more of MVPA (51-77%). Obese and smoking adolescents exercised less often than normal weighted and non-smokers. Girls brushed their teeth twice daily significantly more often than boys (P
poor oral health is common among older people dependent on supportive care and it affects their quality of life. Cognitive impairment and functional dependency may increase the risk of compromised daily oral hygiene.
to investigate the effectiveness of a tailored preventive oral health intervention among home care clients aged 75 years or over.
the intervention group comprised 151 patients (84.4 ± 5.6 years) and the control group 118 patients (84.7 ± 5.2 years). An interview and a clinical examination were carried out before a tailored intervention of oral and denture hygiene. The participants in both groups were re-interviewed and re-examined after 6 months.
the intervention significantly reduced the number of plaque covered teeth and improved denture hygiene. In addition, functional ability and cognitive function were significantly associated with better oral hygiene.
the intervention had a positive effect on oral hygiene, however the number of teeth with plaque remained high, even after the intervention. Multiple approaches based on individual needs are required to improve the oral health of vulnerable older adults, including integrating dental preventive care into daily care plan carried out by home care nurses.
To explore the association between toothbrushing behaviour and change in periodontal pocketing among adults.
We pooled data from 1,025 adults, aged 30-89 years, who participated in two national surveys in Finland (Health 2000 and Health 2011, BRIF8901) and reported their toothbrushing frequency. A cumulative measure of regular toothbrushing was created by counting the number of times participants reported brushing twice or more daily across the two surveys (ranging from 0 to 2). The association between toothbrushing behaviour and the number of teeth with periodontal pocket depth (PPD) =4 mm over 11 years was assessed in linear regression models adjusting for confounders.
There was a clear dose-response relationship between toothbrushing frequency (either at baseline or follow-up) and change in number of teeth with PPD = 4 mm. There was also evidence of a cumulative effect of regular toothbrushing on change in number of teeth with PPD = 4 mm. Participants who reported brushing twice or more a day in both surveys developed 1.99 (95% CI: 1.02-2.95) fewer teeth with PPD = 4 mm than those who did not report this behaviour in any survey.
This 11-year prospective study showed that toothbrushing behaviour was associated with smaller increments in the number of teeth with periodontal pocketing.