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[Can anaerobic culture of throat swabs prevent Lemierre's syndrome?]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature89661
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2009 Mar 16;171(12):991-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-16-2009
Author
Gehrt Britta
Jensen Anders
Kristensen Lena Hagelskjaer
Prag Jørgen
Author Affiliation
Medicinsk Afdeling, Regionshospitalet Viborg, DK-8800 Viborg. gehrt@get2net.dk
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2009 Mar 16;171(12):991-2
Date
Mar-16-2009
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Fusobacterium Infections - drug therapy - microbiology
Fusobacterium necrophorum - classification - isolation & purification
Humans
Jugular Veins
Male
Pharynx - microbiology
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Syndrome
Thrombophlebitis - microbiology
Tonsillitis - microbiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Six cases of Lemierre's syndrome were reported from 2004 to 2007 at Viborg Hospital, corresponding to 33 cases per year in Denmark. All six patients were healthy younger persons presenting with a suspected bacterial tonsillitis which had been found strep A antigen negative. Fusobacterium necrophorum was found in throat swabs by anaerobic culture on selective media and/or by real-time PCR. We recommend that all patients 10 to 40 years of age with strep A antigentest negative bacterial tonsillitis have throat swabs anaerobically cultured on selective media. We believe early identification and therapy may prevent progression to Lemierre's syndrome.
PubMed ID
19284918 View in PubMed
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Different Yersinia enterocolitica 4:O3 genotypes found in pig tonsils in Southern Germany and Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185372
Source
Syst Appl Microbiol. 2003 Mar;26(1):132-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2003
Author
M. Fredriksson-Ahomaa
T. Niskanen
M. Bucher
T. Korte
A. Stolle
H. Korkeala
Author Affiliation
Institute of Hygiene and Technology of Food of Animal Origin, University of Munich, Germany. mkufa@yahoo.com
Source
Syst Appl Microbiol. 2003 Mar;26(1):132-7
Date
Mar-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abattoirs
Animals
Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific - genetics - metabolism
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field - methods
Finland
Food Microbiology
Genotype
Germany
Humans
Palatine Tonsil - microbiology
Swine - microbiology
Yersinia enterocolitica - enzymology - genetics - isolation & purification
Abstract
The distribution of different genotypes of Y. enterocolitica 4:O3 strains recovered from pig tonsils in Southern Germany and Finland in 1999-2000 was investigated. A total of 96 and 207 Y. enterococolitica 4:O3 isolates recovered from 47 and 66 tonsils of finishing pigs in Germany and Finland, respectively, were characterised with PFGE using NotI enzyme. In all, 39 different NotI profiles were obtained, only one of which, NB1, was found in both Germany and Finland. All strains were further characterised with ApaI and XhoI enzymes. When the 54 German and 74 Finnish strains were characterised with all three enzymes, 51 genotypes were obtained. The 23 genotypes found in German strains differed from the 28 found in Finnish strains. These results indicate that Y. enterocolitica 4:O3 genotypes have a differential geographical distribution and thus can be used in epidemiological studies.
PubMed ID
12747421 View in PubMed
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[Diphtheria in Denmark 1956-1989. Occurrence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and other diphtheria toxigenic bacteria]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature37213
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1991 Mar 11;153(11):769-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-11-1991
Author
P B Nielsen
B. Scherling
J H Scheibel
W. Frederiksen
Author Affiliation
Statens Seruminstitut, København.
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1991 Mar 11;153(11):769-72
Date
Mar-11-1991
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Corynebacterium Infections - epidemiology - history - prevention & control
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Denmark - epidemiology
Diphtheria - epidemiology - history - microbiology - prevention & control
English Abstract
Female
History, 20th Century
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Pharyngitis - microbiology
Tonsillitis - microbiology
Abstract
The public immunization program against diphtheria, established in 1941, has almost eradicated the disease in Denmark, and 1956 became the first year without any notified cases. Since then, toxigenic strains have only been isolated five times--three cases of clinical diphtheria due to Corynebacterium diphtheriae biovar. mitis and two cases of tonsillitis/pharyngitis due to Corynebacterium ulcerans. The source of the infection was not identified in any of the cases. The first case of diphtheria in 1968 was imported from abroad. The following two cases in 1983 and 1985 were due to strains of the same phage type and peptide profile as the strains isolated during the epidemic in Sweden in 1984-1986. This indicates that the Danish cases and the Swedish epidemic derived from the same source. The diphtheria immunity of the Danish population is decreasing, and the level of protection is approaching the Swedish level. The impact is that a situation like that in Sweden may be anticipated with diphtheria epidemic in the lowest socio-economical groups--the skid row dwellers, alcoholics and drug abusers--if the immunization program against diphtheria is not intensified.
PubMed ID
1901182 View in PubMed
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Eikenella corrodens in head and neck infections.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167589
Source
J Infect. 2007 Apr;54(4):343-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2007
Author
Tsuyoshi Udaka
Nobuaki Hiraki
Teruo Shiomori
Hiroshi Miyamoto
Takeyuki Fujimura
Tsuyoshi Inaba
Hideaki Suzuki
Author Affiliation
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555, Japan.
Source
J Infect. 2007 Apr;54(4):343-8
Date
Apr-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Child
Child, Preschool
Eikenella corrodens - drug effects - isolation & purification - pathogenicity
Female
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections - complications - microbiology - pathology
Head - microbiology
Humans
Male
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Neck - microbiology
Streptococcal Infections - complications - microbiology
Streptococcus milleri Group - isolation & purification
Tonsillitis - microbiology
Abstract
Eikenella corrodens (E. corrodens) is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacillus that originally was thought to be an attenuated and indigenous bacterium. In recent years, a number of reports have documented that E. corrodens can be a potential pathogen not only in immunocompromised patients but also in hosts with normal immunity. We herein study E. corrodens infections of the head and neck encountered in our department.
Twenty-two consecutive patients treated in our department for E. corrodens infections of the head and neck were retrospectively analyzed. Microbial specimens were subjected to light microscopic examination, aerobic culture using chocolate and sheep blood agar media, and anaerobic culture using Brucella HK agar medium. Cultured bacteria were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests by means of the broth microdilution method.
There were 16 males and 6 females with an average age of 29.9 years. Two patients had malignancy, while the other patients had no particular risk factors or underlying diseases. Infected sites were the ear in 6 cases, pharynx in 12 cases (tonsil in 10 cases), paranasal sinuses in 3 cases, and salivary gland in 1 case. Seventeen patients suffered polymicrobial infections. Staphylococcus and Streptococcus were the most frequently detected pathogens coexisting with E. corrodens, and mixed infections of E. corrodens and Streptococcus milleri group bacteria were prone to form abscesses. Isolated E. corrodens was susceptible to third-generation cephems (MIC90 = 0.15-0.25 microg/ml), carbapenems (MIC90 8 microg/ml), cefazolin (MIC90 > 4 microg/ml), macrolides (MIC90 = 4-8 microg/ml), and clindamycin (MIC90 > 4 microg/ml).
E. corrodens infections of the head and neck occur most frequently in the tonsil even in hosts with normal immunity. Coexistence with Streptococcus milleri group bacteria and the use of ineffective antibiotics can be exacerbating factors. First-choice drugs for E. corrodens infections should be third-generation cephems, carbapenems, or new quinolones.
PubMed ID
16962664 View in PubMed
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Source
Br Med J. 1971 Dec 11;4(5788):660-1
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-11-1971
Author
A. Bro-Jorgensen
T. Jensen
Source
Br Med J. 1971 Dec 11;4(5788):660-1
Date
Dec-11-1971
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Ampicillin - administration & dosage
Complement Fixation Tests
Denmark
Ethnic Groups
Female
Gonorrhea - complications - diagnosis - drug therapy
Humans
Male
Neisseria gonorrhoeae - isolation & purification
Palatine Tonsil - microbiology
Penicillin G - therapeutic use
Probenecid - administration & dosage
Sexual Behavior
Tetracycline - therapeutic use
Tonsillitis - diagnosis - drug therapy - etiology - microbiology
Abstract
Neisseria gonorrhoeae were cultured from tonsillar swabs in six men and six women out of 161 consecutive, unselected, Danish patients (95 men and 66 women) suffering from urogenital or rectal gonorrhoea. Gonococci were found in the tonsils in only one out of 49 foreign men with gonorrhoea. Eleven of the Danish patients admitted orogenital contact at their most recent intercourse. The gonococcal complement fixation test was negative in all except two cases. Standard singledose treatment cured the urogenital and rectal infections promptly but failed to cure the tonsillar infection in five cases, and in recalcitrant cases the organisms were demonstrable for some months.
Notes
Cites: Br J Vener Dis. 1971 Apr;47(2):144-55574737
Cites: Lakartidningen. 1971 Feb 3;68(6):569-715101470
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1970 Aug;73(2):267-94989317
Cites: Br J Vener Dis. 1969 Sep;45(3):228-314981353
Cites: JAMA. 1969 Oct 13;210(2):315-74980782
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1967 Jun 1;276(22):1248-505337413
Cites: Acta Derm Venereol. 1961;41:324-713747992
PubMed ID
5002598 View in PubMed
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Haemophilus influenzae resides in tonsils and uses immunoglobulin D binding as an evasion strategy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106218
Source
J Infect Dis. 2014 May 1;209(9):1418-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-2014
Author
Kalpana Singh
Therése Nordström
Matthias Mörgelin
Marta Brant
Lars-Olaf Cardell
Kristian Riesbeck
Author Affiliation
Medical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine Malmö, Lund University, Malmö
Source
J Infect Dis. 2014 May 1;209(9):1418-28
Date
May-1-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
B-Lymphocytes - immunology
Child
Female
Haemophilus Infections - epidemiology - immunology - microbiology
Haemophilus influenzae - immunology - isolation & purification - metabolism
Humans
Immune Evasion
Immunoglobulin D - immunology - metabolism
Male
Palatine Tonsil - microbiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Toll-Like Receptor 9 - immunology
Young Adult
Abstract
Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) causes respiratory tract infections and is also considered to be a commensal, particularly in preschool children. Tonsils from patients (n = 617) undergoing tonsillectomy due to chronic infection or hypertrophy were examined. We found that 51% of tonsils were positive for Hi, and in 95% of cases analyzed in detail (n = 39) Hi resided intracellularly in the core tonsillar tissue. Patients harbored several intracellular unique strains and the majority were nontypeable Hi (NTHi). Interestingly, the isolated NTHi bound soluble immunoglobulin (Ig) D at the constant heavy chain domain 1 as revealed by recombinant IgD/IgG chimeras. NTHi also interacted with B lymphocytes via the IgD B-cell receptor, resulting in internalization of bacteria, T-cell-independent activation via Toll-like receptor 9, and differentiation into non-NTHi-specific IgM-producing cells. Taken together, IgD-binding NTHi leads to an unspecific immune response and may support the bacteria to circumvent the host defense.
PubMed ID
24218509 View in PubMed
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Health evaluation of arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) cubs in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6081
Source
J Zoo Wildl Med. 2000 Mar;31(1):36-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2000
Author
A A Aguirre
A. Angerbjörn
M. Tannerfeldt
T. Mörner
Author Affiliation
Department of Wildlife, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
J Zoo Wildl Med. 2000 Mar;31(1):36-40
Date
Mar-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Suckling - blood - microbiology - parasitology
Animals, Wild - blood - microbiology - parasitology
Blood Chemical Analysis - veterinary
Conservation of Natural Resources
Feces - microbiology - parasitology
Female
Foxes - blood - microbiology - parasitology
Health status
Hematologic Tests - veterinary
Hydrocortisone - blood
Male
Physical Examination - veterinary
Reference Values
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden
Tonsil - microbiology
Abstract
Hematologic, serum biochemistry, and serum cortisol reference ranges were established and tonsil/rectal bacterial and fecal parasite examinations were performed on 21 wild arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) cubs during July 1996. Several of the hematologic and serum biochemistry values fell within normal ranges for other wild canids or domestic dogs of the same age class. Serum alanine transaminase and creatine phosphokinase values were significantly higher in the youngest cubs. Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli were isolated from both tonsilar and rectal swabs of several cubs in all dens. The most common gastrointestinal parasite ova were Toxascaris leonina (59%), Isospora spp. (52%), Uncinaria stenocephala (33%), and Capillaria spp. (26%). Prevalence of T. leonina differed significantly between dens and between age groups. Hematologic and serum biochemistry values and degree of parasitism may be indicators of health, stress, and nutritional status of arctic foxes.
PubMed ID
10884121 View in PubMed
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Impact on peritonsillar infections and microflora of phenoxymethylpenicillin alone versus phenoxymethylpenicillin in combination with metronidazole.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature237104
Source
Infection. 1986 May-Jun;14(3):129-33
Publication Type
Article
Author
K. Tunér
C E Nord
Source
Infection. 1986 May-Jun;14(3):129-33
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abscess - drug therapy - microbiology
Adolescent
Adult
Bacteria - drug effects
Clinical Trials as Topic
Double-Blind Method
Drug Therapy, Combination
Female
Humans
Male
Metronidazole - therapeutic use
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Palatine Tonsil - microbiology
Penicillin V - therapeutic use
Random Allocation
Tonsillitis - complications
Abstract
In a double-blind study, 20 patients with peritonsillar abscesses were treated with 2 g phenoxymethylpenicillin b.i.d. for ten days together with needle aspiration, incision and daily drainage, and 20 patients were treated with 2 g phenoxymethylpenicillin b.i.d. and 0.8 g metronidazole b.i.d. for ten days together with needle aspiration, incision and daily drainage. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci were isolated from pus in 20 of the patients with peritonsillar abscesses, in five of these together with indigenous oropharyngeal aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Pure anaerobic bacteria were found in nine abscesses, together with indigenous aerobic microorganisms in eight, and together with group A, C and G streptococci in five. In one patient heavily colonized with beta-lactamase-producing Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Bacteroides, group A beta-streptococci failed to be eradicated. In the penicillin group, nine of 18 patients harboured beta-lactamase producing Bacteroides strains in the tonsils on the day of admission. On the third and tenth days of treatment all patients harboured beta-lactamase producing Bacteroides strains in the tonsils, while in the penicillin + metronidazole group, only one out of 17 patients still harboured beta-lactamase producing Bacteroides strains. None of the patients harboured beta-lactamase producing fusobacteria on the day of admission. In the penicillin group, however, beta-lactamase producing fusobacteria were recovered from three patients on the tenth day of treatment. No beta-lactamase producing fusobacteria were recovered from the penicillin + metronidazole group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PubMed ID
3089941 View in PubMed
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30 records – page 1 of 3.