Cigarettes and Swedish snuff contain nicotine, which influence the cardiovascular system. Cigarette smoke has been shown to give an acute impairment in diastolic heart parameters. The systolic and diastolic heart function in snuff users is not thoroughly enough investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate if Swedish snuff will give an acute decrease in systolic and diastolic heart parameters in the left and right ventricles in healthy Swedish snuffers.
Thirty healthy volunteers were examined with echocardiography. The study involved recordings from four different times: before snuff intake, 5 and 30 min after intake and finally 30 min after snuff withdrawal. The systolic and diastolic heart parameters were collected with conventional echocardiographic methods. In addition, the heart frequency and blood pressure response were measured. The pulse and blood pressure response were significantly altered (P
The purpose was to examine cigarette smoking, use of snus, alcohol, and performance-enhancing illicit drugs among adolescent elite athletes and controls, and possible gender and sport group differences. First-year students at 16 Norwegian Elite Sport High Schools (n = 677) and two randomly selected high schools (controls, n = 421) were invited to participate. Totally, 602 athletes (89%) and 354 (84%) controls completed the questionnaire. More controls than athletes were smoking, using snus, and drinking alcohol. Competing in team sports was associated with use of snus [odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 4.7] and a similar percentage of male and female handball (22.2% vs 18.8%) and soccer players (15.7% vs 15.0%) reported using snus. For controls, not participating in organized sport was a predictor for smoking (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 10.9). Female athletes were more prone to drink alcohol than males (46.3% vs 31.0%, P
OBJECTIVE: To study changes in adolescent snus use from 1981 to 2003, the effects of the total snus sales ban (1995) and snus acquisition. DESIGN: Biennial postal surveys in 1981-2003. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Entire Finland; 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-olds (n = 73,946; 3105-8390 per year). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Snus use (experimental, daily/occasionally), snus acquisition (2001, 2003). RESULTS: Snus experimentation grew in popularity before the total sales ban in 16- and 18-year-old boys and after the ban in all age and sex groups. A decrease was seen between 2001 and 2003, except for 18-year-old boys. Daily/occasional use mainly followed the same pattern in boys while in girls the daily/occasional use was rare and no significant changes were observed. In 2003, boys experimented with snus more often than girls (12-year-olds 1% v 0%, 14-year-olds 9% v 4%, 16-year-olds 30% v 12%, 18-year-olds 44% v 18%). Hardly any girls used snus daily/occasionally, but 1% of 14-year-old boys, 7% of 16-year-olds, and 9% of 18-year-olds did. Of daily/occasional users, 84% acquired snus from friends or acquaintances, 55% from tourist trips to neighbouring countries (Estonia, Sweden), and 7% through sport teams; 24% obtained it from under-the-counter sources. For experimenters, the corresponding figures were 79%, 18%, 0.3%, and 5%. CONCLUSIONS: The total sales ban did not stop snus use; instead, the increase continued after the ban. Friends who travel to neighbouring countries act as go-betweens reselling snus. Snus is used even by the youngest adolescents, thus contributing to the nicotine dependence process.
BACKGROUND: Parents play a vital role as children develop tobacco behaviours. Many parents feel unsure about their possibility to influence their teenager's lifestyle. Knowledge about young people's acceptance for parental intervention could increase parental involvement. The overall objective of this study was to explore adolescents' perceptions and expectations of parental action regarding children's smoking and snus use, and whether they have changed over time. To see if there were differences whether the adolescent was a tobacco user or not the adolescents' tobacco use was followed; and described to put the findings on their perceptions and expectations of parental action in a context. METHODS: The study used a repeated cross-sectional design, reporting Swedish national data from three decades. Data were collected in 1987, 1994 and 2003 by a questionnaire mailed to homes, in total to 13500 persons. The annual samples, which were random and national representative, consisted of 4500 young people aged 13, 15 and 17 yr, 1500 individuals per age group. The sampling and data collection procedures were done the same way during each survey. Chi2- tests were used to evaluate differences in distributions. RESULTS: Adolescents in all age groups became more positive toward parental action over time. In 2003, more then 86% of the adolescents, including both smokers and non-smokers, strongly supported parental action on their children's smoking by trying to persuade them not to smoke (94%), by not smoking themselves (87%) and by not allowing their children to smoke at home (86%). Both non-smokers and smokers supported the idea of parental action in a similar way. Reduced pocket money had a weak support (42%), especially from girls. Eighty-nine percent of the adolescents expected their parents to act against smoking and 85% against snus use.Smoking was stable at 8% in 1987 and 1994 but decreased to 4% in 2003. In 1987 the snus use prevalence was 4% and in 2003 it was 3%. Snus users were mostly boys while few girls had done more than tried snus. More young people in all age groups had never tried smoking compared to the previous studies. In 2003 57% stated that they had never tried smoking. CONCLUSION: Adolescent smoking in Sweden has decreased and the proportion who never tried smoking has increased. The results of this study show that a growing majority of adolescents support strong parental intervention to help them refrain from tobacco, but preferably not in a punitive manner. This finding dismisses the notion that adolescents ignore or even disdain parental practices concerning tobacco. Prevention strategies and interventions addressing adolescent tobacco use that involve parents can be improved by using these findings to encourage parents to intervene against their children's tobacco use.
Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop K-50, 4770 Buford Hwy, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
INTRODUCTION: U.S. data on adult tobacco use and the relationship between such use and tobacco-related health disparities are primarily limited to broad racial or ethnic populations. To monitor progress in tobacco control among adults living in the United States, we present information on tobacco use for both aggregated and disaggregated racial and ethnic subgroups. METHODS: We used data from the nationally representative sample of adults aged 18 years or older who participated in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health conducted 4 times during 2002-2005. We calculated 2 outcome measures: 1) use of any tobacco product (cigarettes, chewing or snuff tobacco, cigars, or pipes) during the 30 days before each survey and 2) cigarette smoking during the 30 days before each survey. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco use among adults aged 18 years or older varied widely across racial or ethnic groups or subgroups. Overall, about 3 of 10 adults living in the United States were tobacco users during the 30 days before being surveyed. The population groups or subgroups with a tobacco-use prevalence of 30% or higher were African Americans, American Indians or Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders, Puerto Ricans, and whites. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the prevalence of adult tobacco use is still high among several U.S. population groups or subgroups. Our results also support the need to design and evaluate interventions to prevent or control tobacco use that would reach distinct U.S. adult population groups or subgroups.
BACKGROUND: The high incidence of oral cancer in Sudan has been associated with the use of toombak, the local type of smokeless tobacco. However, its specific effects on human oral cells are not known. We aimed to investigate the effects of toombak on primary normal human oral keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and a dysplastic oral keratinocytic cell line, and to compare them with the effects induced by Swedish snuff. METHOD: Aqueous extracts were prepared from moist toombak and Swedish snuff and added in serial dilutions on in vitro monolayer cultured cells. Cell viability, morphology and growth, DNA double-strand breaks (gammaH2AX staining), expression of phosphatidylserine (Annexin V staining), and cell cycle were assessed after various exposure time periods. RESULTS: Significant decrease in cell number, occurrence of DNA double-strain breaks, morphological and biochemical signs of programmed cell death were detected in all oral cell types exposed to clinically relevant dilutions of toombak extract, although to a lesser extent in normal oral fibroblasts and dysplastic keratinocytes. G2/M-block was also detected in normal oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts exposed to clinically relevant dilutions of toombak extract. Swedish snuff extract had less adverse effects on oral cells, mainly at non-clinically relevant dilutions. CONCLUSION: This study indicates a potential for toombak, higher than for Swedish snuff, to damage human oral epithelium. Dysplastic oral keratinocytes were less sensitive than their normal counterparts, suggesting that they might have acquired a partially resistant phenotype to toombak-induced cytotoxic effects while still being prone to DNA damage that could lead to further malignant progression.
Selling smokeless tobacco (snus) in Finland is illegal, yet one-third of all males aged 16 to 18 years have tried it. A regular snus user can receive a daily dose of 60 to 150 milligrams of nicotine and become heavily addicted. The first--and easily detectable--lesions appear in the oral mucosa and gingiva. Long-time followup studies of snus use from a young age are, however, still lacking. Evidence exists of increased risk for fatal cardiovascular diseases and increased risk for injuries. Risk for oral cancer is debated, with more studies showing an increased risk than showing no risk; risk also exists for cancer of esophagus, stomach and pancreas. A new and alarming finding among female users is increased risk for preterm birth, preeclampsia and neonatal apnea.
Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of smokeless tobacco use during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We examined birth weight, preterm delivery, and preeclampsia in women who were delivered of singleton, live-born infants in Sweden from 1999 through 2000. For each snuff user, 10 cigarette smokers and 10 tobacco nonusers were selected randomly. RESULTS: After exclusions, 789 snuff users, 11,240 smokers, and 11,495 nonusers remained. Compared with nonusers, adjusted mean birth weight was reduced in snuff users by 39 g (95% CI, 6-72 g) and in smokers by 190 g (95% CI, 178-202 g). Preterm delivery was increased in snuff users and smokers (adjusted odds ratios, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.46-2.68] and 1.57 [95% CI, 1.38-1.80], respectively). Preeclampsia was reduced in smokers (adjusted odds ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.53-0.75) but increased in snuff users (adjusted odds ratio, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.09-2.27). CONCLUSION: Snuff use was associated with increased risk of preterm delivery and preeclampsia. Snuff does not appear to be a safe alternative to cigarettes during pregnancy.