The attitude of the Danish population towards organ transplantation was examined by means of an interview study, executed by the Gallup Institute. From a sample population of 1391 persons above 18 years of age, 798 persons (70%) were interviewed, in the period April 24th to May 3rd 1992. When asked what they thought the general attitude toward transplantation was amongst the population, 65% answered "positive" or "very positive". The attitudes to three situations, namely to organ donation after the death of a parent, spouse or child was examined subsequently. Amongst those who had an opinion, 75% (72-76%) were positive and 25% (24-27%) were negative. The younger the interviewed person, the more positive the attitude. According to the Danish law the relatives can decide for or against organ donation if the deceased has not expressed her view on organ donation. In view of the general positive attitude of the population it is proposed that we introduce a system where every adult person is asked concerning his/her attitude, e.g. in connection with the yearly income tax form or renewal of the health insurance certificate.
The objective of the study is to examine attitudes towards aspects of donation treatment based on a national Swedish sample of gamete donors and couples undergoing assisted reproductive techniques (ART).
The present study was part of the Swedish study on gamete donation, a prospective longitudinal cohort study including all fertility clinics performing gamete donation in Sweden. The sample comprised 164 oocyte donors, 89 sperm donors, 251 people treated with their own gametes (in vitro fertilisation (IVF)), 213 oocyte recipients and 487 sperm recipients. A study-specific questionnaire was used.
Attitudes vary widely between couples using their own gametes for IVF and those receiving or donating oocyte or sperm. The groups differed in their responses to most questions. Oocyte and sperm donors were more likely to agree with the statements "The donor should be informed if the donation results in a child" and "Offspring should receive some information about the donor during mature adolescence" than recipients of donated gametes and couples treated with their own gametes.
Donor recipients, IVF couples and donors expressed different attitudes towards openness and information when it came to gamete donation, and those differences seemed to depend on their current reproductive situation.
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Organ transplant is often the only viable treatment for patients with end-stage organ failure. Until now, Icelandic legislation has required informed consent for organ donors, but a new parliamentary bill has been put forth to change the laws to presumed consent. The goal of this study was to investigate the attitude of the Icelandic population towards legislative changes to presumed consent.
Descriptive cross-sectional study using a questionnaire. The study population included all Icelanders, 18 years and older. The sample involved 1400 persons randomly selected from a Capacent Gallup mailing-list. The response rate was 63% or 880 answers.
The majority of Icelanders are in favour of the proposed legislative change (more than 80%). Women were more likely to support presumed consent than men, 85% versus 76% respectively. Younger participants were more likely to be positive towards the new law, but no significant difference was found in attitude by family income, demographics or education. Persons who knew someone close to them that had received a transplanted organ were 50% more likely to be in complete agreement with the proposed legislation. Only 5% of participants were currently registered organ donors - 29 women and 15 men.
Icelanders are very positive towards changing the law to include presumed consent in organ donation. Women and younger people tended to be more in favour and similarly those who know someone that has received donated organs. A majority of responders are willing to donate their organs, but very few are registered as donors.
This review addresses research on gamete donors, recipients, and offspring and demonstrates that the foci on all three within the triad are largely directed at disclosure or anonymity; and each in turn centers on the perceived importance of the genetic link. The importance attached to genetics has led some countries to review the ethics of anonymous gamete donation (e.g. New Zealand's 'open system' of information sharing) and has led other countries (Sweden, Austria, Victoria, Australia; the Netherlands, the UK) to change their laws allowing donor gamete offspring the right to obtain identifying information about their genetic parent. This review demonstrates that genealogical inconsistencies between and within members of the triad are common regardless of legislation. A discussion of future trends and concerns, relating to the use of gamete donation and the effects legislation is likely to have on the donor triads in the UK following 2005, is provided. The review also addresses the importance of testing theoretical models within future research, and argues this would lead to a better understanding of the underlying problems encountered at a psychosocial level, such as continued preference for anonymity in donors and denial in large numbers of users of the involvement of a donor in conception. Lack of disclosure effectively prevents true implementation of legislation; if a child is not informed, it is the result of donated gametes, it cannot take up the legally available option of finding out identifiable information about their genetic parent(s).
The register has been a support for the coordinators in Sweden when the relatives have said one thing and the deceased person another in regards to donation. Most of the staff are positive to the register and the safety regulations around it. Most often it has been a relief for the relatives that the deceased person's wishes also have been documented in the register or in the donor card. Most decisions are still, however, made by relatives. There is still a need for more positive information about transplantation and its value.