Clinical guidelines are produced in order to achieve an acceptable standard of care, especially for patients with common diseases in primary care. The treatment of primary hypothyroidism serves as an example of the content of clinical guidelines and actual practice. The aim of this study was to compare the follow-up of primary hypothyroidism by thyroid function tests, serum TSH and serum-free T4, in older patients managed in primary care, with recommendations in treatment guidelines and textbooks.
Participation rate 82% (n=1260), mean age 74 years, (range 64-100 yrs). Patients with primary hypothyroidism were identified by means of cross-sectional survey (Lieto Study 1998-1999) and 4-year retrospective collection of laboratory database medical records (1994-1998), performed in autumn 2003.
In most stable (=treated for more than 14 months) thyroxine users, both serum TSH (mean 1.4 measurements/year) and serum-free T4 (mean 0.8 measurements/year) values were measured over the 4-year period of thyroxine treatment. 66.4% of serum TSH and 85.3% of serum-free T4 values were within normal range. 41.7% of serum-free T4 determinations had been performed without indication (=with TSH in normal range).
Compared with the recommended testing frequency given in various guidelines, a considerable number of extra measurements, especially serum-free T4, were performed. However, some key issues in the recommendations were difficult to interpret, and the age or other main characteristics of the patient were not taken into consideration adequately.
Patients with overt hypothyroidism show decreased echogenicity of the thyroid at ultrasonography (US). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between echogenicity of the thyroid/irregular echo pattern, and thyroid function in the general population, i.e. subjects without overt thyroid disease.
A cross-sectional investigation of 4649 randomly selected adult subjects.
Blood samples were analysed for serum TSH, thyroid hormones and thyroid autoantibodies. US of the thyroid was performed.
Participants with decreased echogenicity (n=379) had a higher mean TSH (1.65 mU/l) compared with subjects with normal echogenicity (1.21 mU/l, P
Recent studies have suggested that the association of low thyroid function with high body mass is restricted to nonsmokers.
The aim was to study the association of thyroid function with body mass separately for smokers and never-smokers.
We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study.
We studied 27,097 individuals older than 40 yr of age who were without previously known thyroid disease.
We measured mean body mass index (BMI) and odds ratio for obesity (BMI > or = 30.0 kg/m(2)) according to categories of thyroid function, in women and men, and separately for current smokers and never-smokers. We also studied the association with BMI within the reference range of TSH (0.50-3.5 mU/liter).
TSH within the reference range was positively associated with BMI (P for trend
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Few studies have focused on the interrelation between thyroid size, anthropometric variables, and IGF-I in adults, but such data are lacking for children. We have investigated thyroid gland volume and several hormonal and anthropometric variables in prepubertal children. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 859 prepubertal euthyroid Danish children aged 4-9 yr underwent a thorough clinical investigation, including anthropometrical measurements and determination of TSH, thyroid hormones, autoantibodies, urinary iodine excretion, and thyroid volume (TV) by ultrasound. Longitudinal growth data from birth were available. RESULTS: TV increased significantly with age (r = 0.487; P
BACKGROUND: Goiter development depends on genetic and environmental factors. The major environmental factor is iodine intake, whereas diverging results have been published concerning the association between smoking and goiter. METHODS: A comparable, cross-sectional study was performed of patients from 2 areas in Denmark with mild and moderate iodine deficiency. A random sample of women and men in selected age groups from the general community was investigated; 4649 subjects participated. Smoking habits were investigated with questionnaires and interviews. Ultrasonography and clinical examination of the thyroid were performed, serum thyroglobulin was measured, and iodine concentration in spot urine samples was analyzed. Data were analyzed in linear models and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Serum thyroglobulin level and thyroid volume at ultrasonography were positively associated with smoking habits (P