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33 records – page 1 of 4.

Airborne methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) concentrations associated with the application of polyurethane spray foam in residential construction.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165490
Source
J Occup Environ Hyg. 2007 Feb;4(2):145-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2007
Author
Jacques Lesage
Jennifer Stanley
William J Karoly
Fran W Lichtenberg
Author Affiliation
Institut de Recherche Robert-Sauvé en Santé et en Securité du Travail, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. lesage.jacques@irsst.qc.ca
Source
J Occup Environ Hyg. 2007 Feb;4(2):145-55
Date
Feb-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Occupational - analysis - standards
Canada
Chlorofluorocarbons - analysis - standards
Chlorofluorocarbons, Ethane
Facility Design and Construction
Housing
Humans
Isocyanates - analysis - standards
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Particle Size
Polyurethanes
Threshold Limit Values
United States
Abstract
The primary objectives of this study were (a) to measure potential exposures of applicators and assistants to airborne methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), (b) to measure airborne concentrations of MDI at various distances from the spray foam application, and (c) to measure airborne MDI concentrations as a function of time elapsed since application. Other study objectives were, (a) to compare the results from filter and impinger samples; (b) to determine the particle size distribution in the spray foam aerosol; (c) to determine potential exposures to dichlorofluoroethane; and (d) to measure any off-gassing of MDI after the foam had fully cured. This study was conducted during application of spray polyurethane foam inside five single-family homes under construction in the United States and Canada. Spray foam applicators and assistants may be exposed to airborne MDI concentrations above the OSHA permissible exposure limit. At these concentrations, OSHA recommends appropriate respiratory protection during spray foam application to prevent airborne MDI exposures above established limits and to protect against exposure to dichlorofluoroethane (HCFC-141b). Airborne MDI concentrations decrease rapidly after foam application ceases. The highest airborne concentrations measured after 15 min and 45 min were 0.019 mg/m3 and 0.003 mg/m3, respectively. After 45 min, airborne concentrations were below the limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.036-microg per sample. For samples taken 24 hours after completion of foaming, results were also below the LOQ. Approximately two-thirds of the total mass of the airborne particles in the spray foam aerosol was greater than 3.5 microns in diameter. Airborne MDI concentrations determined by filter sampling methods were 6% to 40% lower than those determined by impinger methods.
PubMed ID
17249149 View in PubMed
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Assessing the health implications for healthcare workers of regulatory changes eliminating locally developed occupational exposure limits in favor of TLVs: an evidence-based bipartite approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176240
Source
Int J Occup Environ Health. 2004 Oct-Dec;10(4):433-44
Publication Type
Article
Author
Philip Bigelow
David Moore
Annalee Yassi
Author Affiliation
Occupational Health and Safety Agency of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Source
Int J Occup Environ Health. 2004 Oct-Dec;10(4):433-44
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
British Columbia
Hazardous Substances
Health Personnel
Health Policy
Humans
International Cooperation
Occupational Exposure
Occupational Health
Policy Making
Risk assessment
Threshold Limit Values
Abstract
In response to the intention of the Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia (WCB of BC) to eliminate made-in-BC occupational exposure limits (OELs) and adopt threshold limit values (TLVs), this study assessed the potential health impacts on healthcare workers (HCWs) of the proposed change, by (1) reviewing the processes used to establish the OELs and TLVs, (2) selecting of substances of health concern for HCWs, (3) identifying chemicals with discordances between existing OELs and the 2002 TLVs, and 4) reviewing the discordances and assessing the potential health implications. Differences in philosophies, policies and processes that influenced the setting of OELs and TLVs were substantial. The TLV process involves U.S. and international priorities; in BC, a tripartite committee determined OELs taking into consideration how OELs should be interpreted in the local context. 47 chemicals of concern to BC HCWs were discordant, with significant discordances totalling 57; 15 compounds had BC 8-hour OELs lower than their respective TLVs and three TLVs were lower than the 8-hour BC OELs. Review of six chemicals with discordances suggested a potential for increased risks of adverse health effects. Eliminating the local capacity and authority to set OELs is unlikely to cause major health problems in the short run, but as chemicals in use locally may not have up-to-date TLVs, eliminating the capacity for local considerations should be undertaken with great caution. While the WCB of BC did implement the change, the present report resulted in procedural changes that will provide better protection for the workforce.
PubMed ID
15702759 View in PubMed
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A comparison of REACH-derived no-effect levels for workers with EU indicative occupational exposure limit values and national limit values in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270856
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2015 May;59(4):401-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2015
Author
Sallamari Tynkkynen
Tiina Santonen
Helene Stockmann-Juvala
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2015 May;59(4):401-15
Date
May-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental Monitoring - legislation & jurisprudence - methods
European Union
Finland
Government Regulation
Hazardous Substances - standards
Humans
Material Safety Data Sheets - legislation & jurisprudence
No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level
Occupational Exposure - legislation & jurisprudence - standards
Occupational Health - legislation & jurisprudence - standards
Risk assessment
Threshold Limit Values
Workplace
Abstract
The purpose of occupational exposure limits values (OELs) is to regulate exposure to chemicals and minimize the risk of health effects at work. National authorities are responsible for the setting and updating of national OELs. In addition, the EU sets indicative occupational exposure limit values (IOELVs), which have to be considered by the Member States. Under the new European legislation on chemicals (REACH), manufacturers and importers are obliged to establish derived no-effect levels (DNELs) for chemicals that are manufactured or imported in quantities >10 tonnes per year. Chemical safety data sheets must report both OELs and the DNEL values, if such have been set. This may cause confusion at workplaces, especially if the values differ from each other. In this study, we explored how EU IOELVs and Finnish national OELs [Haitallisiksi tunnetut pitoisuudet (HTP) values] correlate with worker inhalation DNELs for substances registered under REACH. The long-term DNEL value for workers (inhalation) was identical to the corresponding IOELV for the majority of the substances (64/87 cases). Comparison of DNELs with HTP values revealed that the values were identical or close to each other in 159 cases (49%), whereas the DNEL was considerably higher in 69 cases, and considerably lower in 87 cases. Examples of cases with high differences between Finnish national OELs and DNELs are given. However, as the DNELs were not systematically lower than the OELs, the default assessment factors suggested by REACH technical guidance had obviously not been used in many of the REACH registrations.
PubMed ID
25638729 View in PubMed
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[Congenital abnormalities in children whose parents were exposed to methanol and formaldehyde].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128426
Source
Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2012;(12):33-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
L A Taranenko
N N Malutina
Source
Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2012;(12):33-5
Date
2012
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Chemical Industry
Congenital Abnormalities - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Formaldehyde - toxicity
Humans
Male
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Methanol - toxicity
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Paternal Exposure - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Preconception Injuries
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - epidemiology - etiology
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Threshold Limit Values
Abstract
The authors proved relationship between congenital abnormalities in children and influence of chemical factors (methanol and formaldehyde production) on the parents. Higher risk of congenital abnormalities was seen: PR = 5.6 (chi2 = 3.54; p = 0.00001), EF = 0.95. These disorders could be connected with work conditions--exceeded MAC for methanol 3.9-fold, that for formaldehyde--2.4-fold.
PubMed ID
23461188 View in PubMed
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The costs of preventing the spread of respiratory infection in family physician offices: a threshold analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature160356
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2007;7:181
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
William Hogg
David Gray
Patricia Huston
Wei Zhang
Author Affiliation
Department of Family Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada. whogg@uottawa.ca
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2007;7:181
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Costs and Cost Analysis - statistics & numerical data
Family Practice - economics - standards
Hospitalization
Humans
Infection Control - economics
Physicians' Offices - standards
Respiratory Tract Infections - economics - prevention & control
Threshold Limit Values
Abstract
Influenza poses concerns about epidemic respiratory infection. Interventions designed to prevent the spread of respiratory infection within family physician (FP) offices could potentially have a significant positive influence on the health of Canadians. The main purpose of this paper is to estimate the explicit costs of such an intervention.
A cost analysis of a respiratory infection control was conducted. The costs were estimated from the perspective of provincial government. In addition, a threshold analysis was conducted to estimate a threshold value of the intervention's effectiveness that could generate potential savings in terms of averted health-care costs by the intervention that exceed the explicit costs. The informational requirements for these implicit costs savings are high, however. Some of these elements, such as the cost of hospitalization in the event of contacting influenza, and the number of patients passing through the physicians' office, were readily available. Other pertinent points of information, such as the proportion of infected people who require hospitalization, could be imported from the existing literature. We take an indirect approach to calculate a threshold value for the most uncertain piece of information, namely the reduction in the probability of the infection spreading as a direct result of the intervention, at which the intervention becomes worthwhile.
The 5-week intervention costs amounted to a total of $52,810.71, or $131,094.73 prorated according to the length of the flu season, or $512,729.30 prorated for the entire calendar year. The variable costs that were incurred for this 5-week project amounted to approximately $923.16 per participating medical practice. The (fixed) training costs per practice were equivalent to $73.27 for the 5-week intervention, or $28.14 for 13-week flu season, or $7.05 for an entire one-year period.
Based on our conservative estimates for the direct cost savings, there are indications that the outreach facilitation intervention program would be cost effective if it can achieve a reduction in the probability of infection on the order of 0.83 (0.77, 1.05) percentage points. A facilitation intervention initiative tailored to the environment and needs of the family medical practice and walk-in clinics is of promise for improving respiratory infection control in the physicians' offices.
Notes
Cites: Arch Intern Med. 2001 Mar 12;161(5):749-5911231710
Cites: Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2003 Apr;81(1):74-8212676405
Cites: Vaccine. 2003 May 16;21(17-18):2207-1712706712
Cites: Lancet Infect Dis. 2007 Apr;7(4):257-6517376383
Cites: Healthc Manage Forum. 1995 Winter;8(4):36-810156484
Cites: Emerg Infect Dis. 1999 Sep-Oct;5(5):659-7110511522
Cites: BMC Health Serv Res. 2005 Mar 9;5(1):2015755330
Cites: Lancet. 2004 Feb 21;363(9409):582-314987878
PubMed ID
17999757 View in PubMed
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The effect of seat design on vibration comfort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature184820
Source
Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2003;9(2):193-210
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
Andi R Wijaya
Peter Jönsson
Orjan Johansson
Author Affiliation
Department of Human Work Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden. anra@arb.luth.se
Source
Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2003;9(2):193-210
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Automobile Driving
Engineering
Equipment Design
Human Engineering
Humans
Motor Vehicles
Sensory Thresholds
Sweden
Threshold Limit Values
Vibration - adverse effects
Abstract
A field study was done to evaluate different seat designs in the aspect of minimizing vibration transmission and reducing the level of discomfort experienced by drivers subjected to transient vibration. Two seat designs (sliding or fixed in the horizontal direction) were compared in an experiment based on variation of sitting posture, speed, and type of obstacle. The comparison was done by assessing discomfort and perceived motion and by vibration measurement. Ten professional drivers were used as participants. Maximum Transient Vibration Value and Vibration Dose Value were used in the evaluation. The results showed that a sliding seat is superior in attenuating vibration containing transient vibration in the horizontal direction. It was also perceived as giving less overall and low back discomfort compared to a fixed seat.
PubMed ID
12820908 View in PubMed
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[Emerging issues concerning hygiene in the Russian aluminum industry].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128424
Source
Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2012;(11):8-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
O F Roslyi
V B Gurvich
É G Plotko
S V Kuz'min
A A Fedoruk
N A Roslaia
S V Iarushin
D V Kuz'min
Source
Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2012;(11):8-12
Date
2012
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Occupational - toxicity
Aluminum - analysis - toxicity
Building Codes - standards
Chemical Industry - standards
Costs and Cost Analysis
Environmental Monitoring - economics - methods
Fluorides - analysis - toxicity
Humans
Manufactured Materials - analysis - toxicity
Occupational Diseases - classification - economics - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Occupational Exposure - analysis - prevention & control
Risk Assessment - methods
Russia - epidemiology
Safety Management - organization & administration
Threshold Limit Values
Abstract
In this study the data of multiyear investigations of occupational and environmental hazards at different enterprises of the Russian aluminum industry are presented. Basing on these data, we have been elaborated the algorithm and methodological approaches on management of the occupational and ecology-related risks using hygienic safety criteria, risk evaluation technique, epidemiological and economic analysis.
PubMed ID
23479952 View in PubMed
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Estimating trends in quartz exposure in Swedish iron foundries--predicting past and present exposures.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129480
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2012 Apr;56(3):362-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2012
Author
Lena Andersson
Alex Burdorf
Ing-Liss Bryngelsson
Håkan Westberg
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, SE-701 85 Örebro, Sweden. lena.andersson4@orebroll.se
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2012 Apr;56(3):362-72
Date
Apr-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Epidemiological Monitoring
Humans
Iron
Metallurgy - trends
Occupational Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Quartz - analysis
Reproducibility of Results
Sweden - epidemiology
Threshold Limit Values
Time Factors
Abstract
Swedish foundries have a long tradition of legally required surveys in the workplace that, from the late 1960s onwards, included measurements of quartz. The availability of exposure data spanning almost 40 years presents a unique opportunity to study trends over that time and to evaluate the validity of exposure models based on data from shorter time spans. The aims of this study were (i) to investigate long-term trends in quartz exposure over time, (ii) using routinely collected quartz exposure measurements to develop a mathematical model that could predict both historical and current exposure patterns, and (iii) to validate this exposure model with up-to-date measurements from a targeted survey of the industry.
Eleven foundries, representative of the Swedish iron foundry industry, were divided into three groups based on the size of the companies, i.e. the number of employees. A database containing 2333 quartz exposure measurements for 11 different job descriptions was used to create three models that covered time periods which reflected different work conditions and production processes: a historical model (1968-1989), a development model (1990-2004), and a validation model (2005-2006). A linear mixed model for repeated measurements was used to investigate trends over time. In all mixed models, time period, company size, and job title were included as fixed (categorical) determinants of exposure. The within- and between-worker variances were considered to be random effects. A linear regression analysis was performed to investigate agreement between the models. The average exposure was estimated for each combination of job title and company size.
A large reduction in exposure (51%) was seen between 1968 and 1974 and between 1975 and 1979 (28%). In later periods, quartz exposure was reduced by 8% per 5 years at best. In the first period, employees at smaller companies experienced ~50% higher exposure levels than those at large companies, but these differences became much smaller in later years. The furnace and ladle repair job were associated with the highest exposure, with 3.9-8.0 times the average exposure compared to the lowest exposed group. Without adjusting for this autonomous trend over time, predicting early historical exposures using our development model resulted in a statistically significant regression coefficient of 2.42 (R(2) = 0.81), indicating an underestimation of historical exposure levels. Similar patterns were seen for other historical time periods. Comparing our development model with our validation model resulted in a statistically significant regression coefficient of 0.31, indicating an overestimation of current exposure levels.
To investigate long-term trends in quartz exposure over time, overall linear trends can be determined by using mixed model analysis. To create individual exposure measures to predict historical exposures, it is necessary to consider factors such as the time period, type of job, type of company, and company size. The mixed model analysis showed systematic changes in concentration levels, implying that extrapolation of exposure estimates outside the range of years covered by measurements may result in underestimation or overestimation of exposure.
PubMed ID
22104319 View in PubMed
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Exposure of school employees to extremely low frequency magnetic fields.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198909
Source
Can J Public Health. 2000 Jan-Feb;91(1):21-4
Publication Type
Article
Author
F. Akbar-Khanzadeh
D K Bitovski
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, Medical College of Ohio 43614, USA. fakbar@mco.edu
Source
Can J Public Health. 2000 Jan-Feb;91(1):21-4
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Chi-Square Distribution
Electromagnetic fields
Faculty
Female
Housekeeping
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Occupations
Ontario
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Schools
Threshold Limit Values
Abstract
This study was initiated to determine and compare daily occupational exposure (OE) and non-occupational exposure (NOE) of three employee groups of teachers, maintenance workers and secretarial staff in a Canadian school district. The time-weighted average (TWA) individual OE for subjects ranged from 0.4-3.8 milligauss (mG), and the TWA NOE ranged from 0.2-7.1 mG. TWA OE and NOE were 1.2 mG and 1.5 mG for teachers, 1.8 mG and 1.2 mG for maintenance workers, and 2.9 mG and 2.1 mG for secretarial staff. The differences between TWA OE and NOE of each group and also among the three groups were not statistically significant. OE and NOE of secretarial staff exceeded 10 mG 9.0% and 6.4% of the time--significantly (p
PubMed ID
10765574 View in PubMed
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33 records – page 1 of 4.