Fear can be problematic for children who come into contact with medical care. This study aimed to illuminate the meaning of being afraid when in contact with medical care, as narrated by children 7-11 years old. Nine children participated in the study, which applied a phenomenological hermeneutic analysis methodology. The children experienced medical care as "being threatened by a monster," but the possibility of breaking this spell of fear was also mediated. The findings indicate the important role of being emotionally hurt in a child's fear to create, together with the child, an alternate narrative of overcoming this fear.
The effects of anger and effortful control on aggressogenic thought-behaviour associations were investigated among a total of 311 Finnish fifth and sixth graders (mean age = 11.9 years). Self-reported aggressive cognitions (i.e., normative- and self-efficacy beliefs about aggression) were expected to be associated with higher peer-reported aggressive behaviour. Teacher reported anger and effortful control were hypothesised, and found, to moderate the effects of aggressive cognitions on aggression, such that the effects were strongest for children who were high in anger and low in effortful control, as compared to other conditions. Furthermore, under the conditions of high anger and high effortful control, self-efficacy was negatively related to aggression. Thus, aggression is a result of a complex, hierarchically organised motivational system, being jointly influenced by aggressive cognitions, anger and effortful control. The findings support the importance of examining cognitive and emotional structures jointly when predicting children's aggressive behaviour.
As part of an ongoing process of curriculum development, a new course was developed at the University of British Columbia (UBC) to address problems such as lack of student enjoyment of the learning process, poor student preparedness for clinical treatment planning, and underdeveloped critical thinking skills in students beginning their clinical experience. The new course utilized a hybrid problem-based learning (PBL) format that provided students with an overview in lecture format while encouraging active learning in small group tutorials and seminars. Half the second-year class was randomly selected to participate in the new course, while the other half received the standard lectures on the subject. An outcomes assessment examined whether the aforementioned problems had been addressed in the new course. Course participants completed a post-course evaluation, and all students completed a self-assessment of their preparedness and progress in treatment planning and diagnostic. Clinical instructors, who were blind to the identity of the new course participants, were asked to independently assess each student using the same criteria. Results indicate that students who participated in the hybrid-PBL course enjoyed the learning process and later rated themselves as being better prepared and improving more in the areas of treatment planning and diagnostic records than their counterparts, although the latter results were not routinely statistically significant (p
A pictorial computerized communication aid for aphasic patients, PicBox, (12) has been developed by a group in Sweden. During the technical and clinical work with the PicBox program we have had the reason and possibility to reflect on the relation between aphasia, language and thinking. From linguistic and neuropsychological research it has been claimed that in aphasia there is often a general cognitive impairment. Preliminary results from three patients' use of PicBox show that aphasic disturbances can, to some extent, be compensated for by pictorial communication, thus indicating an underlying cognitive competence. There are, however, also data indicating a deeper disturbance leading to an inability to fully use alternatives for spoken or written language.
The Obsessive Thoughts Checklist (OTC) differs from several other measures of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in its focus on obsessive thoughts instead of compulsive behaviour. The OTC has been used in several studies in France and abroad and support for the discriminant and convergent validity of the instrument has been gathered. The authors of the OTC recently reported 3 underlying factors in this instrument: a perfectionism/verification factor, a contamination factor and a responsibility factor. In an earlier study of the OTC a 2 factor solution was however suggested. It therefore seems important to further elucidate the factorial structure of this instrument using confirmatory factor analysis. In this study data on the Icelandic translation of the OTC from three samples of Icelandic college students were submitted first to an exploratory and then to a confirmatory factor analysis. The total number of subjects was 614 college students, 254 men and 360 women with a mean age of 24.4 (sd = 5.0). The results of the exploratory factor analysis (PCA) submitted to a varimax rotation are presented in table I. The 3 expected factors were reproduced with few cross-loadings. In the confirmatory factor analysis the fit of three models to the data were evaluated: a 1 factor model, the 2 factor model of Bouvard et al. and the 3 factor model of Bouvard et al.. An initial examination of the data led to logarithmic transformation of 18 items to reduce skewness in their distributions. The data was subsequently subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis to compare the three-factor model with the two-factor and one-factor models for the OTC. The factors for the three- and two-factor models were allowed to correlate freely. The data were analysed using the EQS procedure, and the models tested were covariance structure models. Table II presents the goodness of fit indices for all three models. The results show that none of the three models provide an overall appropriate fit for the data. However, the fit indices for the three-factor model were considerably higher than found for the two or one factor models and the RMSEA index for the three-factor model suggested an acceptable fit for that model. Although the three-factor model suggests the best fit of all three models, the fit indices were still unacceptably low. Further examination of the data revealed a pattern of standardized residuals suggesting that this might in part be attributable to three items from the responsibility factor (items 26, 19 and 15) not being well specified within the model. When the residuals for these items were allowed to correlate, the fit of the model was substantially improved (CFI = 0.85; GFI = 0.87; AGFI = 0.85; RMSEA = 0.062). This indicates that a revision of the responsibility scale might be appropriate. Table III provides the means, standard deviations and the alpha coefficients for the 3 subscales of the OTC as well as for the total scale. In one subsample of the study (sample 1, n = 169) the OTC was administered together with the Padua Inventory-Washington State Revision (PI-WSUR) measuring obsessive-compulsive symptoms, the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) and the Community Epidemiological Scale-Depression (CES-D) measuring depression. In order to investigate the convergent validity and divergent of the OTC its correlation with the PI-WSUR was compared with its correlations with PSWQ and CES-D. These correlations shown in table IV support the convergent and divergent validity of the OTC. In another subsample of the study (sample 2, n = 296) the OTC was administered together with the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (MOCI). For samples 1 and 2, zero order and partial correlations were calculated between the subscales of the OTC and the subscales of the other instruments. As shown in table V the strongest correlations between the checking/perfectionism and the contamination subscales of the OTC were with corresponding subscales of the PI-WSUR and the MOCI. It is concluded that the factorial, the convergent and the divergent validities of the Icelandic translation of the OTC are supported in a student population even though the somewhat suboptimal fit of the three-factor model may indicate that a revision of the responsibility factor might be in order. This should however be further studied in a clinical population.
This paper is a report of a study conducted to describe nursing and social services students' ethical reasoning at the start of their studies.
Gilligan argued that there are two modes of moral reasoning - the ethic of justice, focusing on individuals' rights, and the ethic of care, focusing on responsibilities in relationships. Recent research has established the ethic of care as a developmental phenomenon. It has been widely argued that the ethic of care is crucial for nursing, but there has been little international research in this area.
Participants were first-year nursing and social services students in Finland (N =112). Their care-based moral reasoning was measured using the Ethic of Care Interview, and their ethical reasoning on an abortion-related dilemma was analysed by content analysis. Expressed ethical codes and principles were calculated according to levels. The data were collected over a 5-month period in 2007-2008.
Students' level of care reasoning was varied. Their current level of care reasoning was reflected in their responses to the ethical dilemma. Ethical reasoning at each level and its specific premises constituted a distinct entity. Use of the principle of self-determination was positively related to levels of care development. Care-based moral reasoning constitutes the bedrock for ethical reasoning among these novice students.
Educators should be sensitive to the variation in students' current developmental levels in care reasoning. Reflective discussion on real-life ethical conflicts should be an explicit part of education and clinical practice in caring professions.
The objective of this study was to describe the experience of caring for individuals at the end of life by five nurses working in curative care units. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to gain a better understanding of the meaning nurses give to this experience. The analysis of results, based on Giorgi's phenomenological method (1997), highlighted a central meaning: it is a human experience fraught with paradoxes where the bedside nurse feels both privileged to be accompanying these individuals at the end of their lives and torn between the medical priority given to curative care and the lesser priority given to palliative care. This study offers relevant options for nurse managers wanting to improve these nurses' work environment and the quality of care for individuals at the end of life.
To test the reliability, feasibility, and responsiveness of a categorization scheme for assessing pharmacy students' levels of reflection during internships.
Pharmacy interns at Uppsala University were asked to write a reflective essay about patient counseling at the start and end of their internships. A modified version of Kember's categorization scheme for assessing the level of reflection was used to evaluate these essays.
Based on their essay scores, the students' levels of reflection increased during the internship course (p
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Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Centre for Research in Education at the University Health Network, University of Toronto, 200 Elizabeth Street, Eaton South 1-604, Ont., M5G 2C4, Toronto, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
Healthcare professionals use the genre of case presentation to communicate among themselves the salient patient information during treatment and management. In case presentation, many uncertainties surface, regarding, e.g., the reliability of patient reports, the sensitivity of laboratory tests, and the boundaries of scientific knowledge. The management and portrayal of uncertainty is a critical aspect of professional discourse. This paper documents the rhetorical features of certainty and uncertainty in novice case presentations, considering their pragmatic and problematic implications for students' professional socialization. This study was conducted during the third-year inpatient clerkship at a tertiary care, pediatric hospital in hospital in Canada. Data collection included: (1) non-participant observations of 19 student case presentations involving 11 student and 10 faculty participants, and (2) individual interviews with 11 students and 10 faculty participants. A grounded theory approach informed data collection and analysis. Five thematic categories emerged, two of which this paper considers in detail: "Thinking as a Student" and "Thinking as a Doctor". Within these categories, the management and portrayal of uncertainty was a recurrent issue. Teachers modeled central features of a "professional rhetoric of uncertainty", managing uncertainty of six origins: limits of individual knowledge, limits of evidence, limitless possibility, limits of patient's/parent's account, limits of professional agreement, and limits of scientific knowledge. By contrast, students demonstrated a "novice rhetoric of uncertainty", represented by their focus on responding to personal knowledge deficits through the strategies of acknowledgement, argument, and deflection. Some students moved towards the professional rhetoric of uncertainty, suggesting not only advances in communication, but also shifts in attitude towards patients and colleagues, that were interpreted as indications that this rhetoric shapes professional identity and interactions.