To compare men with prostate disease with those from the general population regarding polymorphisms in the androgen receptor gene and in the 5alpha-reductase II (SRD5A2) gene.
The SRD5A2 polymorphisms A49T, V89L and R227Q, the androgen receptor CAG and GGN repeats and sex hormone status was investigated in men with prostate cancer (CaP) (n=89), benign prostate hyperplasia (n=45) and healthy military conscripts (n=223).
The SRD5A2 high-activity allele variants A49T AT and V89L LL were more frequent in CaP-patients compared to general population, p=0.026 and p=0.05, respectively. CaP progression was, however, independent of SRD5A2 variants. In contrary, men with GGN
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have suggested that abnormal levels of cortisol and testosterone might increase the risk of serious somatic diseases. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a 5-year follow-up study in middle-aged men. METHODS: A population-based cohort study conducted in 1995 amongst 141 Swedish men born in 1944, in whom a clinical examination supplemented by medical history aimed to disclose the presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, stroke), type 2 diabetes and hypertension were performed at baseline and at follow-up in the year 2000. In addition, salivary cortisol levels were measured repeatedly over the day. Serum testosterone concentrations were also determined. Using the baseline data, an algorithm was constructed, which classified the secretion pattern of cortisol and testosterone from each individual as being normal or abnormal. RESULTS: By the end of follow-up, men with an abnormal hormone secretion pattern (n = 73) had elevated mean arterial pressure (P = 0.003), fasting insulin (P = 0.009) and insulin : glucose ratio (P = 0.005) compared with men with a normal secretion pattern (n = 68). Body mass index, waist circumference, and waist : hip ratio were significantly elevated in both groups. However, the 5-year incidence of CVD, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension were significantly higher (P
Testosterone is an important hormone in the sexual differentiation of the brain, contributing to differences in cognitive abilities between males and females. For instance, studies in clinical populations such as females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) who are exposed to high levels of androgens in utero support arguments for prenatal testosterone effects on characteristics such as visuospatial cognition and behaviour. The comparison of opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twin pairs can be used to help establish the role of prenatal testosterone. However, although some twin studies confirm a masculinizing effect of a male co-twin regarding for instance perception and cognition it remains unclear whether intra-uterine hormone transfer exists in humans. Our aim was to test the potential influences of testosterone on academic performance in OS twins. We compared ninth-grade test scores and teacher ratings of OS (n=1812) and SS (n=4054) twins as well as of twins and singletons (n=13,900) in mathematics, physics/chemistry, Danish, and English. We found that males had significantly higher test scores in mathematics than females (.06-.15 SD), whereas females performed better in Danish (.33-.49 SD), English (.20 SD), and neatness (.45-.64 SD). However, we did not find that OS females performed better in mathematics than SS and singleton females, nor did they perform worse either in Danish or English. Scores for OS and SS males were similar in all topics. In conclusion, this study did not provide evidence for a masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to academic performance in adolescence.
Cites: Behav Genet. 1993 Jul;23(4):323-98240211
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Dec 15;90(24):11900-48265645
According to the 'good genes' hypothesis, females choose males based on traits that indicate the male's genetic quality in terms of disease resistance. The 'immunocompetence handicap hypothesis' proposed that secondary sexual traits serve as indicators of male genetic quality, because they indicate that males can contend with the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. Masculinity is commonly assumed to serve as such a secondary sexual trait. Yet, women do not consistently prefer masculine looking men, nor is masculinity consistently related to health across studies. Here, we show that adiposity, but not masculinity, significantly mediates the relationship between a direct measure of immune response (hepatitis B antibody response) and attractiveness for both body and facial measurements. In addition, we show that circulating testosterone is more closely associated with adiposity than masculinity. These findings indicate that adiposity, compared with masculinity, serves as a more important cue to immunocompetence in female mate choice.
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Cites: Proc Biol Sci. 1998 May 22;265(1399):927-339633114
The present study determines how populations of Great Tits (Parus major) breeding in southern, mid and northern European latitudes have adjusted their reproductive endocrinology to differences in the ambient temperature during the gonadal cycle. A study based on long-term breeding data, using the Colwell predictability model, showed that the start of the breeding season has a high predictability ( approximately 0.8-0.9) at all latitudes, and that the environmental information factor (I(e)) progressively decreased from mid Italy (I(e)>4) to northern Finland (I(e)
To analyse the factors predisposing to male immunological infertility from the hospital records of 508 patients that had been treated for infertility in the Turku University Central Hospital from 1980 to 2000. In addition, the hormonal status was investigated at the beginning of treatment.
Patients with a history of mumps, or either a fresh varicocele or a history of varicocele had statistically significant lower levels of MAR antisperm antibodies (ASAs) than patients with no such conditions. Repair of varicocele (either surgical or embolisation), showed a statistically significant enhancement of the total sperm cell counts in ejaculates, but it appeared not to have any influence on other parameters of the semen analysis (mobility and morphology). Of all male infertility patients, 66.3% had normal hormonal status at the beginning of treatment, 12.6% of patients had hypotestosteronemia and 22.1% had subclinical hypogonadism. Patients with subclinical hypogonadism had lower total sperm cell count in ejaculates than patients with normal hormonal status although they had statistically significant more offspring. In addition, it appeared that mumps orchitis as well as smoking and alcohol abuse are risk factors for subclinical hypogonadism.
No clear predisposing factor for male immunological infertility could be found. However, patients with subclinical hypogonadism differed from other male infertility patients and thus may form a special group among the male infertility patients.
We determined the influence of the extent of disease on bone scan, serum testosterone, patient age, performance status, method of initial diagnosis, Gleason grade, clinical stage at diagnosis, serum acid phosphatase, serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) and primary hormonal treatment on survival. The clinical and hormonal data were obtained when the presence of metastatic disease was established and treatment was to be initiated in 162 men with metastatic prostate cancer. Mean followup was 16 months (range 1 to 105 months). A total of 70 men (43.2%) died of the metastatic disease during the evaluation period. Log rank analysis revealed that only serum testosterone (p = 0.035) and extent of disease on bone scan (p = 0.003) significantly affected over-all survival. A trend (p = 0.068) towards decreased survival was observed with increasing values of PSA. Increasing values of acid phosphatase positively correlated with extent of disease on bone scan but was not a significant independent prognostic factor. Patient age, performance status, clinical stage, method of initial diagnosis, Gleason grade and type of hormonal treatment did not significantly influence survival. Upon using multivariate Cox analysis, only extent of disease on bone scan was significantly correlated with over-all survival (p less than 0.014). PSA may also be influential but longer duration of followup will be necessary. We conclude that extent of disease on bone scan is the most important prognosticator of the analyzed factors and that serum testosterone may be of value.
The purpose of this paper is to review the anthropological evidence relating to the cultural determinants of the right-hand first postaulted by Hertz in his classic study. Also a genetic/cultural conformity model of handedness is presented that postulates that the incidence of handedness in a society is held to result both from the genetic expression of handedness interacting with cultural pressures towards conformity. The evolutionary basis for the hemispheric functional organization into cognitive and perceptual hemispheric functions is discussed in terms of "right-handed dominant homozygotes, DD," "heterozygotes, DR," mixed-handers, and "left-handed recessive homozygotes, RR." The cross-cultural distribution of handedness provides support for this model since the more conforming agriculturalists as measured by the Asch Test have a significantly lower incidence of left-handedness (0.59%, 1.5% and 3.4%), while the more permissively socialized Eskimo and Arunta hunters, who are seen to be more independent on the Asch Test, have 11.3% and 10.5% left-handers, respectively. Also, due to the greater pressures for females to conform in agricultural societies, the incidence of female left-handedness in agricultural societies is 0% out of 330 female Ss, with 3.8%, 0.79%, and 2.5% in agricultural males, as contrasted with the Eskimo hunters who have 12.5% left-handed males and 10.3% left-handed females, showing no significant sex difference. A further Hong Kong-English study also supports the genetic/cultural conformity model with a significantly lower incidence of Hong Kong Chinese left-handers (RR: male = 2.7%, and female = 4.2%). The next section, concerned with the neonatal sex-hormone differentiation and lateralization processes, provides a neuropsychologic theory relating to spatial and linguistic skills that is relevant to the following section, which deals with relationships between laterality and cognitive style. The results are also presented for the Alaskan Eskimo in relation to hand, eye, auditory dominance and cognitive style. The analysis of Eskimo fixed-versus mixed-laterality data also confirms, as predicted, that both within and across a modality (e.g., right hand/right eye/right ear) fixed right-dominance Eskimo Ss are more field-independent than mixed-dominance Ss, while the fixed left-dominance Ss are the most field-dependent and have lower spatial skills. The discussion section reviews the papers relating to the genetic/conformity model of handedness, as well as laterality and cognitive style. The evolutionary adaptive significance of sex differences in gonadal differentiation and lateralization of the brain on spatial and linguistic skills are also reviewed. The conclusions are concerned with the implications for biosocial theory and the rapidly changing incidence of left-handedness due to accompanying changes in cultural pressures both within and across cultures.
We studied fat distribution and metabolic risk factors in 434 38-year old women selected from population registrars in 5 cities in different parts of Europe. In the present study we focussed on the geographical variation in serum concentrations of free testosterone and its relation to measures of obesity, fat distribution and indicators of cardiovascular risk (serum lipids, insulin, and blood pressure). There were significant differences in free testosterone levels (F = 5.4, p less than 0.001) with lowest levels in Polish women (mean +/- SEM: 1.56 +/- 0.08 pg/ml) and highest in women from Italy (2.07 +/- 0.12 pg/ml). In the pooled data, free testosterone levels were correlated with several anthropometric variables (strongest with subscapular/triceps ratio r = 0.27, with subscapular skinfold and waist/thigh circumference ratio r = 0.25 p-values less than 0.001). In addition, free testosterone was positively correlated with serum total cholesterol (r = 0.11), HDL/total cholesterol fraction (r = 0.12), serum insulin (r = 0.20) and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.15). These associations remained significant after adjustment for body mass index and waist/thigh ratio (not for diastolic blood pressure) but were no longer significant after further adjustment for insulin levels. There were considerable differences in strength of the associations mentioned between the 5 centers. We conclude that degree of obesity, fat distribution and serum levels of free testosterone all, to a limited degree, contribute to the metabolic profile of randomly selected 38-year old women but that adjustment for such variables increases the differences in metabolic profiles between women from different centers of Europe.
To assess possible associations between androgen, estrogen and insulin levels and blood pressure in pregnant women after term, compared with the effect of other well-known factors.
Cross-sectional retrospective study.
University Hospital, Trondheim region.
Four hundred and eighty-nine post-term women with uncomplicated pregnancies.
Blood pressure measurements and fasting serum samples drawn one week beyond the estimated day of delivery (defined as 41(+2) weeks).
Blood pressure, maternal age, body mass index, parity, smoking habits and serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstendione, free testosterone index, estradiol, estriol, progesterone, 17-hydroxy-progesterone and insulin.
In univariate linear regression analyses, body mass index, androstendione, free testosterone index and insulin were positively associated and parity was negatively associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In multivariate linear regression analyses, systolic blood pressure was positively associated with body mass index and free testosterone index, but negatively associated with parity and 17-hydroxy-progesterone levels, while diastolic blood pressure was positively associated with age and free testosterone index, but negatively associated with parity and 17-hydroxy-progesterone levels.
Testosterone may increase blood pressure in pregnant women, while 17-hydroxy-progesterone may have the opposite effect.