To determine whether birth and care in the highest-level hospitals (level III) compared with birth in or postnatal transfer to lower-level hospitals (level II) are associated with 5-year morbidity in very preterm children.
A cohort study.
All surviving 5-year-old children born very preterm (gestational age
Anaesthesiologists from Oslo University Hospital have transported patients with severe oxygenation failure with inhaled nitric oxide (usually 20?ppm) from other hospitals to a tertiary care centre since 2002 in an effort to reduce the number of patients that otherwise would require transport with ongoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the patient safety during transport with inhaled nitric oxide.
All patient transports with ongoing nitric oxide treatment undertaken from 2003 to 2012 were identified in the transport database. The frequency of adverse events and their impact on patient safety were studied in addition to response to inhaled nitric oxide and adjusted intensive care treatment and time aspects of the transports. Information about in-hospital treatment and survival were extracted from the hospital patient records.
Adverse events were recorded in 12 of the 104 transports. Seven of the adverse events were due to malfunctioning technical equipment, three were related to medication other than the inhaled nitric oxide and two were related to ventilation. No adverse events resulted in permanent negative patient consequences or in discontinuation of the transport. Out of 104 patients, 79 responded to treatment with inhaled nitric oxide and other treatment changes by an increase in oxygen saturation of more than 5%. The 30-day mortality was 27% in the group transported with inhaled nitric oxide.
Transporting patients on inhaled nitric oxide is an alternative in selected patients who would otherwise require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during transport.
The determination of an appropriate catchment area for a hospital providing highly specialized (i.e. tertiary) health care is typically a trade-off between ensuring adequate client volumes and maintaining reasonable accessibility for all potential clients. This may pose considerable challenges, especially in sparsely inhabited regions. In Finland, tertiary health care is concentrated in five university hospitals, which provide services in their dedicated catchment areas. This study utilizes Geographic Information Systems (GIS), together with grid-based population data and travel-time estimates, to assess the spatial accessibility of these hospitals. The current geographical configuration of the hospitals is compared to a normative assignment, with and without capacity constraints. The aim is to define optimal catchment areas for tertiary hospitals so that their spatial accessibility is as equal as possible. The results indicate that relatively modest improvements can be achieved in accessibility by using normative assignment to determine catchment areas.
In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), adherence to both medical treatment and other aspects of care has a substantial impact on the course of the disease. Most studies of medical adherence have reported that 30-45% of patients with IBD were non-adherent. Our study aimed to investigate the different aspects of adherence and to identify predictors of non-adherence, including the quality of care, for outpatients with IBD.
An anonymous electronic questionnaire was used to investigate different aspects of adherence, the quality of care, patient involvement and shared decision making among 377 IBD outpatients.
Three hundred (80%) filled in the questionnaire. The overall adherence rate was 93%. Young age (
The impact of delay in obtaining an intensive care unit (ICU) consult from inpatient wards is unclear. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of time to ICU consult from medical and surgical wards on mortality and length of stay (LOS).
This was a retrospective study of 241 adult medical and surgical inpatients admitted at 2 tertiary care ICUs in Canada between 2007 and 2009. Neither institution has medical emergency teams (METs). Patient demographics, time when the patient would have fulfilled MET calling criteria (MET time), time of ICU consult, and ICU admission were analyzed. The main outcome variables were 30-day mortality and ICU LOS.
Multivariate analysis demonstrated an increase in mortality (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.9; P = .01) with increased duration from MET time to ICU consult for medical patients. There was no effect of this period on ICU LOS in medical patients. In contrast, in surgical patients, the MET time to ICU consult duration was associated with an increased ICU LOS (coefficient, 2.1 for delay; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-3.8; P = .02) but had no effect on mortality.
Increased duration to ICU consult from MET time is associated with adverse outcomes. These adverse outcomes are different between medical and surgical patients.
We sought to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of organisms causing community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) in adult females attending an urban emergency department (ED) and to identify risk factors for antibiotic resistance.
We reviewed the ED charts of all nonpregnant, nonlactating adult females with positive urine cultures for 2008 and recorded demographics, diagnosis, complicating factors, organism susceptibility, and risk factors for antibiotic resistance. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential risk factors were calculated.
Our final sample comprised 327 UTIs: 218 were cystitis, of which 22 were complicated cases and 109 were pyelonephritis, including 22 complicated cases. Escherichia coli accounted for 82.3% of all UTIs, whereas Staphylococcus saprophyticus accounted for 5.2%. In uncomplicated cystitis, 9.5% of all isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 24.0% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). In uncomplicated pyelonephritis, 19.5% of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 36.8% to TMP-SMX. In UTI (all types combined), any antibiotic use within the previous 3 months was a significant risk factor for resistance to both ciprofloxacin (OR 3.34, 95% CI 1.16-9.62) and TMP-SMX (OR 4.02, 95% CI 1.48-10.92). Being 65 years of age or older and having had a history of UTI in the previous year were risk factors only for ciprofloxacin resistance.
E. coli was the predominant urinary pathogen in this series. Resistance to ciprofloxacin and TMP-SMX was high, highlighting the importance of relevant, local antibiograms. Any recent antibiotic use was a risk factor for both ciprofloxacin and TMP-SMX resistance in UTI. Our findings should be confirmed with a larger prospective study.
The Seattle Heart Failure Model (SHFM) is 1 of the most widely used tools to predict survival in patients with heart failure. However, it does not accommodate very elderly patients. We decided to assess the applicability of the SHFM in patients >80 years old enrolled in a tertiary care heart failure clinic. We evaluated the difference between observed survival and mean life expectancy as predicted by the SHFM on 261 patients >80 years old enrolled in a heart failure clinic at the Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada from January 2002 through March 2010. Average age of the patient population was 85 ± 4 years (range 80 to 105). Sixty-two percent of the population consisted of men, 63% had ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM), and average ejection fraction was 36 ± 18%. Median observed survival was 1.91 years (interquartile range 0.68 to 5.53) for the total population (n = 261). The SHFM (predicted median survival 6.7 years, interquartile range 3.8 to 11.2) overestimated life expectancy by an average of 4.79 years. For patients with ICM (n = 164) versus non-ICM (n = 97), the score overestimated survival by 4.29 versus 5.69 years, respectively. In conclusion, the SHFM overestimates life expectancy in elderly patients followed in a tertiary care heart failure clinic. Further studies are needed to more accurately estimate prognosis in this patient population.
Comment In: Am J Cardiol. 2013 Apr 15;111(8):123523558002
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is used for long-term enteral nutrition in neurological patients with dysphagia (NEUR), in head and neck cancer patients prior to chemoradiation therapy (head and neck malignancy group [HNM]), or in cases of oropharyngeal or esophageal tumor obstruction or stricture (OBSTR). Considerable morbidity and overall mortality is reported. Aim was to analyze the complication rates and mortality with PEG and to identify subgroups with poor outcomes.
Patients underwent PEG (n = 401) in a single tertiary care center. Indications, characteristics, and causes of death were recorded.
Number of patients in groups: HNM 135 (34%), OBSTR 74 (18%), and NEUR 192 (48%); follow-up time median (interquartile range): 17 (39) months; the time PEG used for feeding: 4 (7) months. A total of 91 patients (23%) had 110 complications, 31 patients (8%) had early (=30 days) complications, and 49 patients (12%) major complications. Two deaths (0.5%, 2 peritonitis) were related to PEG. The 30-day mortality was 11% (n = 47). According to multivariate analysis, an increased 30-day mortality was associated with =75 years of age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class IV, a Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) =4, body mass index (BMI)
Post-operative delirium after cardiac surgery is an adverse event that affects patients' recovery and complicates the delivery of nursing care. Numerous risk factors for delirium are uncontrollable; however, nurses' pro re nata drug administration of sedatives may be a controllable risk factor.
This study examined the relationship between nurses' pro re nata administration of midazolam hydrochloride to cardiac surgery patients and the development of post-operative delirium.
Cardiac surgery intensive care and nursing units of a tertiary care center in Vancouver, Canada.
122 male and female patients requiring non-emergent surgery for coronary artery disease or valvular heart disease who did not have pre-existing cognitive impairment, severe hearing or visual impairment, substance misuse, alcohol intake exceeding 7 drinks per week, or renal impairment requiring hemodialysis.
Patients were assessed for delirium, on three occasions, with the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) during the first 72 h after surgery and through reviews of physicians' notes. Risk factor and midazolam dosage data were collected from medical records.
77.9% of the patients in this sample received midazolam hydrochloride post-operatively. The prevalence of delirium ranged from 37.7% to 44.3%. Almost all of the dosages of midazolam (85-87%) were given before the first indication of delirium; that is, most of the patients had received their entire dosage before the first signs of delirium were detected. Bivariate analysis with logistic regression models revealed that for every additional milligram of midazolam administered, the patients were 7-8% more likely to develop delirium. Multivariate logistic regression models demonstrated that the magnitude of the association between midazolam dosage and delirium was not confounded by established risk factors including age and peripheral vascular disease.
Nurses play an important role in the prediction, assessment and prevention of post-operative delirium. Sedatives should be administered with caution because they increase a patient's risk of developing delirium. Nurses' decisions regarding sedation administration must be informed by empirical knowledge, accurate assessment data and clear rationale with consideration of how these actions may contribute to the development of delirium.
Interactions between antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and medications to treat age-related comorbidities are a growing concern in the aging HIV population.
To investigate the association of age with potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs) involving ARVs.
We studied ARV-treated patients attending a tertiary care center. PDDIs were classified as "red flag" (contraindicated) or "orange flag" (use with caution or dose adjustment). Logistic regression was used to determine the association of age with the occurrence of =1 PDDI.
Of 914 patients (78% male, median age 49 years), older patients (age =50 years) were on more drugs than younger patients (total 9 vs 7; P