AACVPR/ACC/AHA 2007 performance measures on cardiac rehabilitation for referral to and delivery of cardiac rehabilitation/secondary prevention services endorsed by the American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Sports Medicine, American Physical Therapy Association, Canadian Association of Cardiac Rehabilitation, European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, Inter-American Heart Foundation, National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists, Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association, and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons.
A list of 266 abbreviations from dieticians' notes in patient records was used to extract the same abbreviations from patient records written by three professions: dieticians, nurses and physicians. A context analysis of 40 of the abbreviations showed that ambiguous meanings were common. Abbreviations used by dieticians were found to be used by other professions, but not always with the same meaning. This ambiguity of abbreviations might cause misunderstandings and put patient safety at risk.
The article emphasizes that the palliative medical care is considered in the Federal law "On the fundamentals of health care of citizen in the Russian Federation" (2011)as one of the types of medical care of population. The Orders of delivery of palliative care to adult population and children are in the process of development to determine in perspective the formation of palliative care services in the regions. The successful development of this service needs a clear-cut definition of palliative care to formulate the corresponding tasks and contingents of patients. The Preference is to be given to the definition which considers palliative medical care as a medical care of patients with diagnosis of active incurable progressing disease at the stage when possibilities of specialized/radical treatment are exhausted or limited.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) encompasses different histologic subtypes. Distinguishing between the subtypes is usually made by morphologic assessment, which is not always accurate.
Our aim was to identify microRNA (miRNA) signatures that can distinguish the different RCC subtypes accurately.
A total of 94 different subtype cases were analysed. miRNA microarray analysis was performed on fresh frozen tissues of three common RCC subtypes (clear cell, chromophobe, and papillary) and on oncocytoma. Results were validated on the original as well as on an independent set of tumours, using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis with miRNA-specific primers.
Microarray data were analysed by standard approaches. Relative expression for qRT-PCR was determined using the ??C(T) method, and expression values were normalised to small nucleolar RNA, C/D box 44 (SNORD44, formerly RNU44). Experiments were done in triplicate, and an average was calculated. Fold change was expressed as a log(2) value. The top-scoring pairs classifier identified operational decision rules for distinguishing between different RCC subtypes and was robust under cross-validation.
We developed a classification system that can distinguish the different RCC subtypes using unique miRNA signatures in a maximum of four steps. The system has a sensitivity of 97% in distinguishing normal from RCC, 100% for clear cell RCC (ccRCC) subtype, 97% for papillary RCC (pRCC) subtype, and 100% accuracy in distinguishing oncocytoma from chromophobe RCC (chRCC) subtype. This system was cross-validated and showed an accuracy of about 90%. The oncogenesis of ccRCC is more closely related to pRCC, whereas chRCC is comparable with oncocytoma. We also developed a binary classification system that can distinguish between two individual subtypes.
MiRNA expression patterns can distinguish between RCC subtypes.