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69 records – page 1 of 7.

Air and biological monitoring of solvent exposure during graffiti removal.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature72055
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2000 Nov;73(8):561-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2000
Author
H. Anundi
S. Langworth
G. Johanson
M L Lind
B. Akesson
L. Friis
N. Itkes
E. Söderman
B A Jönsson
C. Edling
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. helena.anundi@medsci.uu.se
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2000 Nov;73(8):561-9
Date
Nov-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants, Occupational - toxicity
Comparative Study
Environmental monitoring
Female
Humans
Male
Maximum Allowable Concentration
Occupational Exposure
Occupations
Pyrrolidinones - analysis - blood - urine
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Solvents - toxicity
Sweden
Teratogens
Time Factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The principal aim of the study was to estimate the level of exposure to organic solvents of graffiti removers, and to identify the chemicals used in different cleaning agents. A secondary objective was to inform about the toxicity of various products and to optimise working procedures. METHODS: Exposure to organic solvents was determined by active air sampling and biological monitoring among 38 graffiti removers during an 8-h work shift in the Stockholm underground system. The air samples and biological samples were analysed by gas chromatography. Exposure to organic solvents was also assessed by a questionnaire and interviews. RESULTS: Solvents identified were N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether (DPGME), propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME), diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DEGEE), toluene, xylene, pseudocumene, hemimellitine, mesitylene, ethylbenzene, limonene, nonane, decane, undecane, hexandecane and gamma-butyrolactone. The 8-h average exposures [time-weighted average (TWA)] were below 20% of the Swedish permissible exposure limit value (PEL) for all solvents identified. In poorly ventilated spaces, e.g. in elevators etc., the short-term exposures exceeded occasionally the Swedish short-term exposure limit values (STEL). The blood and urine concentrations of NMP and its metabolites were low. Glycol ethers and their metabolites (2-methoxypropionic acid (MPA), ethoxy acetic acid (EAA), butoxy acetic acid (BAA), and 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) acetic acid (MEAA)) were found in low concentrations in urine. There were significant correlation between the concentrations of NMP in air and levels of NMP and its metabolites in blood and urine. The use of personal protective equipment, i.e. gloves and respirators, was generally high. CONCLUSIONS: Many different cleaning agents were used. The average exposure to solvents was low, but some working tasks included relatively high short-term exposure. To prevent adverse health effects, it is important to inform workers about the health risks and to restrict the use of the most toxic chemicals. Furthermore, it is important to develop good working procedures and to encourage the use of personal protection equipment.
PubMed ID
11100951 View in PubMed
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An assessment of the developmental, reproductive, and neurotoxicity of endosulfan.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature89883
Source
Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2009 Feb;86(1):1-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2009
Author
Silva Marilyn H
Gammon Derek
Author Affiliation
Department of Pesticide Regulation, California Environmental Protection Agency, 1001 I Street, Sacramento, CA 95812, USA. msilva@cdpr.ca.gov
Source
Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2009 Feb;86(1):1-28
Date
Feb-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Autistic Disorder - epidemiology - etiology
Databases, Factual
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Embryo, Mammalian - embryology
Endocrine Disruptors - classification - toxicity
Endosulfan - classification - toxicity
Female
Fetal Development - drug effects
Humans
Infertility, Male - epidemiology - etiology
Inhalation Exposure
Insecticides - classification - toxicity
Male
Nervous System Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level
Pesticide Residues - toxicity
Pregnancy
Rabbits
Rats
Reproduction - drug effects
Risk assessment
Spermatozoa - drug effects
Teratogens - classification - toxicity
Young Adult
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Endosulfan has been used for over 50 years. Although most analogs have been discontinued, endosulfan has less environmental persistence. Nevertheless, pressure groups are lobbying for a worldwide ban. The reasons are: possible rodent male reproductive toxicity, other endocrine effects and cancer; human epidemiology, and exposure studies; residues appearing in remote areas of the world, e.g., the Arctic. METHODS: The endosulfan toxicology database is described and risks of its use assessed. RESULTS: Endosulfan is an antagonist at the GABA(A) receptor Cl(-) ionophore in mammalian CNS. Rat acute toxicity is moderate, LD(50)=48 (M) or 10 mg/kg/d (F), oral gavage; 130 (M), 70 mg/kg/d (F) dermal; LC(50)=34.5 microg/L (M), 12.6 microg/L (F), inhalation. Critical NOELs for risk assessment: acute oral (gavage)=0.7 mg/kg/d (rabbit developmental); Subchronic oral (diet)=1.2 mg/kg/d (rat reproduction); Chronic oral (diet)=0.6 mg/kg/d. There were no acceptable dermal toxicity studies. The critical acute and subchronic inhalation NOELs=0.001 mg/L, chronic inhalation=0.0001 mg/L (estimated). Toxicity to rat sperm occurred at doses causing neurotoxicity. Endocrine effects, resulting from P450 oxygenase(s) induction, were reversible. Increased cancer, genotoxicity, or histopathology in rodents was not observed in any organ. Possible effects on brain biogenic amine levels were probably secondary. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiology and rodent studies suggesting autism and male reproductive toxicity are open to other interpretations. Developmental/ reproductive toxicity or endocrine disruption occurs only at doses causing neurotoxicity. Toxicity to the fetus or young animals is not more severe than that shown by adults.
PubMed ID
19243027 View in PubMed
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[Are hospitals dangerous? 7 nurses had malformed children]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature39272
Source
Vardfacket. 1986 Mar 6;10(5):16-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-6-1986

Biological monitoring of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone using 5-hydroxy-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone in plasma and urine as the biomarker.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197858
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2000 Jun;26(3):213-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2000
Author
B. Akesson
B A Jönsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. bengt.akesson@ymed.lu.se
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2000 Jun;26(3):213-8
Date
Jun-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Biological Markers
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Humans
Inhalation Exposure - analysis
Linear Models
Male
Maximum Allowable Concentration
Pyrrolidinones - analysis - metabolism
Solvents - analysis
Sweden
Teratogens - analysis
Abstract
The aims were to study the toxicokinetics of 5-hydroxy-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNMP) in blood and urine after exposure to N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and to study the suitability of 5-HNMP as a biomarker for assessing NMP exposure.
Six male volunteers were exposed for 8 hours to NMP concentrations of 0, 10, 25, and 50 mg/m3. Blood and urine were sampled before, during, and up to 40 hours after exposure. Aliquots of urine and plasma were purified, derivatized, and analyzed for 5-HNMP on a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer in the electron impact mode.
The mean plasma concentration [P-(5-HNMP)] after 8-hour NMP exposure to 10, 25, and 50 mg/m3 was 8.0, 19.6, and 44.4 micromol/l, respectively. The mean urinary concentration [U-(5-HNMP)] for the 2 last hours of exposure was 17.7, 57.3, and 117.3 mmol/mol creatinine, respectively. The maximal P-(5-HNMP)and U-(5-HNMP) concentrations occurred 1 hour and 0-2 hours, respectively, after the exposure. The half-times of P-(5-HNMP) and U-(5-HNMP) were 6.3 and 7.3 hours, respectively. The 5-HNMP urinary concentrations were 58% of the calculated retained dose. There was a close correlation (r) between P-(5-HNMP) (r=0.98) and U-(5-HNMP) (r=0.97) with NMP exposure.
5-HNMP is an excellent biomarker for assessing exposure to NMP. Its plasma and urinary half-times (6-7 hours), the minimal risk for contamination during sampling in occupational settings, and the close correlation of P-(5-HNMP) and U-(5-HNMP) with NMP exposure makes 5-HNMP suitable for monitoring exposure to NMP. 5-HNMP in plasma is recommended.
PubMed ID
10901113 View in PubMed
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Central-nervous-system defects in children born to mothers exposed to organic solvents during pregnancy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature246992
Source
Lancet. 1979 Jul 28;2(8135):177-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-28-1979
Author
P C Holmberg
Source
Lancet. 1979 Jul 28;2(8135):177-9
Date
Jul-28-1979
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities, Drug-Induced - epidemiology
Abnormalities, Multiple - chemically induced
Anencephaly - chemically induced
Female
Finland
Humans
Hydrocephalus - chemically induced
Infant, Newborn
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Meningomyelocele - chemically induced
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications
Retrospective Studies
Solvents - poisoning
Teratogens
Abstract
In a two-year study of mothers of children with congenital central-nervous-system defects and their matched-pair controls, exposure to noxious influences during pregnancy was analysed. Information on exposure was gained by interviews with all the mothers, sometimes supplemented by visits to their places of work. Significantly more case-mothers than control-mothers had been exposed to organic solvents during the first trimester of pregnancy (p less than 0.01).
PubMed ID
89284 View in PubMed
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CHARGE association looking at the future--the voice of a family support group.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature219893
Source
Child Care Health Dev. 1993 Nov-Dec;19(6):395-409
Publication Type
Article
Author
K D Blake
D. Brown
Author Affiliation
Memorial University, St Johns, Newfoundland, Canada.
Source
Child Care Health Dev. 1993 Nov-Dec;19(6):395-409
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities, Multiple - epidemiology - etiology - therapy
Adolescent
Adult
Case Management - standards
Child
Child Health Services - statistics & numerical data
Child, Preschool
Consumer Participation
Cost of Illness
Developmental Disabilities - etiology - therapy
Education, Special - statistics & numerical data
Female
Hearing Disorders - etiology - therapy
Humans
Infant
Male
Maternal Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Movement Disorders - etiology - therapy
Newfoundland and Labrador - epidemiology
Self-Help Groups - organization & administration - statistics & numerical data
Teratogens
Vision Disorders - etiology - therapy
Voluntary Health Agencies - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
CHARGE association is a non-random collection of congenital anomalies. The condition is becoming more widely known to medical and educational professionals. The number of children diagnosed is increasing, probably because of the greater awareness of this condition. This paper considers some of the long-term management problems which are often deferred in the early months, when acute life threatening problems take priority. Questionnaires were sent to parents via the CHARGE Association Family Support Group, UK. Thirty-nine were returned and incomplete information was sought by personal contact or telephone. The majority of children were known professionally to one or both authors and information was therefore checked from medical and educational notes. There is still widespread misunderstanding about the impact of multiple disability, especially when this includes multi-sensory impairment, on the early development of the child. Therefore, the information collected from the study has been from an educational and medical perspective, thereby aiding the understanding of these complex problems. At the parents request, information was gathered about certain teratogens, of which Lindane, an organophosphate, is highlighted.
PubMed ID
9098398 View in PubMed
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