Information is sparse concerning the incidence and prognosis of headache in children from the general population, especially of tension-type headache. In this study, headache diagnoses and symptoms were reassessed in 122 out of 130 schoolchildren after 3 years. Nearly 80% of those with headache at first evaluation still reported headache at follow-up. Although the likelihood of experiencing the same headache diagnosis and symptoms was high, about one-fifth of children with tension-type headache developed migraine and vice versa. Female gender predicted migraine and frequent headache episodes predicted overall headache at follow-up. The estimated average annual incidence was 81 and 65 per 1000 children, for tension-type headache and migraine, respectively. We conclude that there is a considerable risk of developing and maintaining headache during childhood. Headache diagnoses should be reassessed regularly and treatment adjusted. Girls and children with frequent headache have a poorer prognosis and therefore intervention is particularly important in these groups.
Increased pain sensitivity in the central nervous system may play an important role in the pathophysiology of chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Previous studies using pain thresholds as a measure of central pain sensitivity have yielded inconsistent results and only a few studies have examined perception of muscle pain without involvement of adjacent tissues. It has been suggested that suprathreshold testing might be more sensitive than threshold measurements in evaluation of central hyperexcitability in CTTH. The aim of the study was to compare pain ratings to suprathreshold single and repetitive (2 Hz) electrical stimulation of muscle and skin in cephalic (temporal and trapezius) and extracephalic (anterior tibial) regions between patients with CTTH and healthy subjects. In addition, we aimed to examine gender differences in pain ratings to suprathreshold stimulation and degree of temporal summation of pain between patients and controls. Pain ratings to both single and repetitive suprathreshold stimulation were higher in patients than in controls in both skin and muscle in all examined cephalic and extracephalic regions (P
OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to compare the prevalence of primary headaches in Denmark in two periods as only few replicate studies have re-evaluated the prevalence of primary headaches. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: The 2001 study is a replicate of a cross-sectional survey of primary headaches in 1989, and compares 297 subjects aged 25-36 years from the general population, with the 294 comparable subjects invited in 1989. Medical doctors diagnosed all headaches using IHS-classification. RESULTS: The participation rate was 75% in 1989 and 70% in 2001. The prevalence of migraine did not change significantly (11-15%), while the prevalence of tension-type headache (79-87%), especially of frequent tension-type headache (29-37%) increased significantly. The prevalence of chronic tension-type headache (2-5%) tended to increase. The proportion of the migraineurs with migraine 14 days or more per year increased (12-38%). Female gender was a risk factor for both primary headaches. The majority of migraineurs (92-94%) also reported coexistent tension-type headache. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of tension-type headache but not of migraine increased. The increase in migraine and tension-type headache frequency suggests a higher individual and societal impact of primary headaches now, than 12 years ago.
Altered pain sensitivity is believed to play an important role for chronification of headache. It has however mainly been evaluated in highly selected patients from headache clinics and never in longitudinal studies. The present study is a 12-year follow-up of a population-based study of primary headache disorders and pain perception, combining a diagnostic headache interview with examination of muscle tenderness and measurement of pressure pain thresholds in 1000 subjects drawn randomly from the general population in Denmark. The aim of the study was to explore the cause-effect relationship between the increased pain sensitivity and the development of headache. The pressure pain thresholds were normal at baseline but had decreased at follow-up in subjects who developed chronic tension-type headache over the 12-year period (p = 0.025). In subjects who developed frequent episodic tension-type headache the tenderness was normal at baseline but had increased at follow-up (p
In this present thesis I have discussed the epidemiology and possible pathophysiological mechanisms of tension-type headache. A population-based study of 1000 subjects randomly selected from a general population, two clinical studies, and a method study of EMG recordings, were conducted. Tension-type headache was the most prevalent form of headache, with a life-time prevalence of 78% in a general adult population. Thirty percent were affected more than 14 days per year and 3% were chronically affected, i.e. had headache at least every other day. Females were more frequently affected than males, and young subjects more frequently affected than older subjects. Females were more sensitive to mechanical pressure pain and revealed more tenderness from pericranial muscles and tendon insertions than males, and young subjects were more pain-sensitive than older subjects. Significantly higher tenderness in pericranial muscles was found in subjects with tension-type headache compared to migraineurs and to subjects without any experience of headache. Tenderness increased significantly with increasing frequency of tension-type headache in both males and females, whereas no such relation was found for mechanical pain thresholds. The applied EMG methodology was fairly reliable and nonpainful, but due to intersubject variability paired studies should be preferred. Subjects with chronic tension-type headache had slightly increased EMG levels during resting conditions and decreased levels during maximal voluntary contraction compared with headache-free subjects, indicating insufficient relaxation at rest and impaired recruitment at maximal activity. In a subsequent clinical, controlled study, the effect of 30 min of sustained tooth clenching was studied. Within 24 h, 69% of patients and 17% of controls developed a tension-type headache. Shortly after clenching, tenderness was increased in the group who subsequently developed headache, whereas tenderness was stable in the group of patients who remained headache-free, indicating that tenderness might be a causative factor of the headache. Likewise, psychophysical and EMG parameters were studied in 28 patients with tension-type headache, both during and outside of a spontaneous episode of tension-type headache. It was concluded that a peripheral mechanism of tension-type headache is most likely in the episodic subform, whereas a secondary, segmental central sensitization and/or an impaired supraspinal modulation of incoming stimuli seems to be involved in subjects with chronic tension-type headache. Prolonged nociceptive stimuli from myofascial tissue may be of importance for the conversion of episodic into chronic tension-type headache. The author emphasizes that tension-type headache is a multifactorial disorder with several concurrent pathophysiological mechanisms, and that extracranial myofascial nociception may constitute only one of them. The present thesis supplements the understanding of the balance between peripheral and central components in tension-type headache, and thereby, hopefully, leads us to a better prevention and treatment of the most prevalent type of headache.
Headaches affect most children and rank third among illness-related causes of school absenteeism. Although the short-term outcome for most children appears favorable, few studies have reported long-term outcome.
To evaluate the long-term prognosis of childhood headaches 20 years after initial diagnosis in a cohort of Atlantic Canadian children who had headaches diagnosed in 1983.
Ninety-five patients with headaches who consulted 1 of the authors in 1983 were previously studied in 1993. The 77 patients contacted in 1993 were followed up in 2003. A standardized interview protocol was used.
Sixty (78%) of 77 patients responded (60 of the 95 of the original cohort). At 20-year follow-up, 16 (27%) were headache free, 20 (33%) had tension-type headaches, 10 (17%) had migraine, and 14 (23%) had migraine and tension-type headaches. Having more than 1 headache type was more prevalent than at diagnosis or initial follow-up (P
Background Three successive editions of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and multiple guideline papers on headache care have described evidence based diagnosis and treatment of headache disorders. It remains unknown, however, to which extent this has improved the diagnosis and management of headache. That was the aim of our study in which we also analysed differences between three social groups in Russia. Methods We studied 1042 students (719 females, 323 males, mean age 20.6, age range 17-40), 1075 workers (146 females, 929 males, mean age 40.4, age range 21-67) and 1007 blood donors (484 females, 523 males, mean age 34.1, age range 18-64). We conducted a semi-structured, validated, face-to-face professional interview. Data on prevalence and associated factors have previously been published. A section of the interview focused on previous diagnosis and treatment, the topic of this paper. Results Only 496 of 2110 participants (23%) with headache in Russia had consulted because of headache. Students consulted more frequently (35%), workers and blood donors less often (13% and 14%). Only 12% of the patients with ICHD-3beta diagnosis of migraine and 11.7% with ICHD-3beta diagnosis of tension-type headache (TTH) had previously been correctly diagnosed. Triptans were used by only 6% of migraine patients. Only 0.4% of migraine patients and no TTH patients had received prophylactic treatment. Conclusion Despite existing guidelines about diagnosis and treatment, both remain poor in Russia. According to the literature this is only slightly better in Europe and America. Dissemination of existing knowledge should have higher priority in the future.
our aim was to investigate the course of medication-overuse headache in the general population and the effect of simple advice regarding medication overuse.
prospective cohort study. Participants were identified in a cross-sectional epidemiological sample of 30000 persons aged 30-44 from the general Norwegian population. People with chronic headache (= 15 days per month for at least 3 months) and medication overuse received short information about the possible role of medication overuse in headache chronification. A cohort was followed up 1½ years later. The diagnostic criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and data splitting methodology were used.
Akershus University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
a total of 109 participants with chronic primary headache and medication overuse were available for follow-up (85% participation rate).
Change in medication days and headache days per month.
at baseline chronic tension-type headache was found in 92% of participants; 8% had chronic migraine or new daily persistent headache. Migraine co-occurrence was found in 53%. The mean duration of chronic headaches were 8-18 years, the mean duration of medication overuse between 5 and 10 years prior to intervention. At follow up, the mean medication days were significantly reduced from 22 days to 6 days per month, and 76% no longer had medication overuse. Forty-two percent no longer had chronic headache and the headache index was reduced by 24%.
our examination and short information served as a modified brief intervention which can improve chronic headache and medication overuse in the general population.
The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence of tension-type headache (T-TH) in rural Norway, and 1838 citizens aged 18-65 years were included. Features indicating neck involvement were also looked for. T-TH was compared with migraine without aura and with cervicogenic headache (CEH) considering both these features and typical migraine traits. Face-to-face interviews were carried out, based on an elaborate questionnaire. The IHS criteria, first version, were used for T-TH diagnosis. A T-TH prevalence of 34% was found. In T-TH and migraine without aura, typical CEH features, such as reduced range of motion in the neck and mechanical provocation of pain, were far less prominent than in CEH. Typical migraine traits, e.g. photophobia, were much less frequently present in T-TH and CEH than in migraine without aura. T-TH is, in all probability, not a CEH variant and vice versa.
The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 3) performed in 2006-2008 is a replication of the cross-sectional survey from 1995 to 1997 (HUNT 2). The aim of the present study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of questionnaire-based headache diagnoses using a personal interview by a neurologist as a gold standard. For the questionnaire-based status as headache sufferer, a sensitivity of 88%, a specificity of 86%, and a kappa statistic of 0.70 were found. Chronic headache, chronic tension-type headache (TTH), and medication overuse headache (MOH) were diagnosed with a specificity of > or =99%, and a kappa statistic of > or =0.73. Lower figures were found for the diagnoses of migraine and TTH. For individuals with headache > or =1 day per month, a sensitivity of 58% (migraine) and 96% (TTH), a specificity of 91 and 69%, and a kappa statistic of 0.54 and 0.44 were found, respectively. The specificity for migraine with aura was 95%. In conclusion, the HUNT 3-questionnaire is a valid tool for identifying headache sufferers, and diagnosing patients with chronic headache, including chronic TTH and MOH. The more moderate sensitivity for migraine and TTH makes the questionnaire-based diagnoses of migraine and TTH suboptimal for determining the prevalence. However, the high specificity of the questionnaire-based diagnosis of migraine, in particular for migraine with aura, makes the questionnaire a valid tool for diagnosing patients with migraine for genetic studies.