AIMS: Very few studies indicating that low-moderate alcohol consumption protects from myocardial infarction (MI) controlled for social support and working conditions, which could confound the findings. Therefore, a first aim was to study the risk of non-fatal and total MI in relation to volume of alcohol consumption and measures of social support and working conditions. A second aim was to analyse the impact of the volume of earlier alcohol use in abstainers. DESIGN: Data came from a case-control study, the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP), including first MI among Swedish citizens 45-70 years old. SETTING: Stockholm County 1992-94. PARTICIPANTS: There were 1095 cases of MI in men and 471 in women (928 and 372 were non-fatal), and 2339 living controls from the general population. MEASUREMENT: Information about alcohol use at different periods in life and job strain, social anchorage and life control besides pre-existing health problems, smoking, physical activity, socio-economic status and marital status was obtained by a questionnaire from the cases and the controls. FINDINGS: In multivariate logistic regression analyses, the relative risk for MI (especially non-fatal) was reduced among alcohol consumers. RR for non-fatal MI was 0.52 (95% confidence intervals 0.32, 0.85) in men with a consumption of 50-69.9 g 100% ethanol/day and 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.06, 0.77) in women with a consumption of 30 g or more per day (reference category 0.1-5 g 100% ethanol/day). Men who were abstainers during the previous 1-10 years and with an earlier average consumption of 5-30 g 100% ethanol/day had a significantly lower relative risk compared to such abstainers with an earlier higher consumption. Earlier consumption among abstainers may also have an impact on gender differences in MI. Analyses showed positive interaction between abstention and low life-control in women, but only 4% of the female cases were due to this interaction. There were no other interactions between measures of alcohol use and social anchorage, life control and working situations. CONCLUSION: Alcohol use had a protective impact on MI, with little impact of job strain, social anchorage and life control, giving increased support for a protective impact of low-moderate alcohol use. The level of previous alcohol consumption among male 1-10-year-long abstainers influenced the risk of MI.
From a total population of 10,766 Swedish 50- to 59-year-old women, 6,917 (64.2%) participated in the Women's Health in Lund Area (WHILA) study, and among them 6,623 (95.7%) answered the questions on alcohol consumption. One out of 4 women (26.0%) consumed no alcohol in an ordinary week (non-drinkers), 57.4% consumed not more than 83 g alcohol, 12.5% consumed 84-167 g and 4.2% consumed 168 g or more. The weekly drinkers had a median consumption of 40.0 g alcohol (range 2.5-1,036.0) and the main sort of alcohol was wine. Comparing the four drinking groups, most differences occurred between the non-drinking and the weekly drinking women. The non-drinkers had lower socio-demographic status, poorer health and more symptoms, especially physical symptoms. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, most associations between non-drinking and lower socio-demographic status remained.
To examine associations of abstention, alcohol consumption and problem drinking with subsequent disability pensioning (DP), and whether previous excessive consumption ('sick-quitting') could explain some of the increased risk for DP among abstainers.
Prospective population-based study.
Data were from two waves of the Nord-Tr?ndelag Health Study (HUNT) linked with the national insurance database. The two main analyses included 37,729 (alcohol consumption) and 34,666 (problem drinking) participants.
Alcohol consumption was measured by self-reported consumption, while problem drinking was assessed by the Cut down, Annoyed, Guilt, Eye-opener (CAGE) questionnaire. Information on subsequent DP, including diagnosis for which the DP was awarded, was gathered from the national insurance database. Covariates included somatic illness and symptoms, mental health, health-related behaviour, socio-economic status and social activity.
Those reporting the highest level of alcohol consumption were not at increased risk for DP [hazard ratio (HR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92-1.38], whereas problem drinking was a strong predictor (HR 2.79, 95% CI: 2.08-3.75) compared to their corresponding reference groups. Alcohol abstainers were also at increased risk for DP, but among them, the previous consumers (HR 1.95, 95% CI: 1.48-2.57) and previous excessive consumers (HR 1.67, 95% CI: 1.01-2.74) were at higher risk for DP than constant abstainers.
Problem drinking is linked to subsequent requirement for a disability pension but mere alcohol consumption is not. This is partly explained by 'sick-quitting'.
To obtain descriptive data on the alcohol-use patterns and the factors affecting them among Finnish first-year university students.
Cross sectional survey with a self-administered questionnaire.
Finnish first-year university students.
3,836 students during the academic year 1989/90. The participation rate was 73.7% for female and 53.6% for male students.
Frequency of drinking alcohol, heavy drinking, and drinking for intoxication, average alcohol consumption.
The mean alcohol consumption for female students was 2.6 kg and for male students 6.5 kg of pure alcohol per year. 6.5% of the female students and 5.1 of the male students were abstainers. The heaviest drinking 10% consumed 42% of all consumed alcohol. 4.9% of the female students reported a consumption of at least 10 kg of pure alcohol per year and 11.7% of male students reported a consumption of at least 15 kg. The median for the frequency of drinking was every second week for the females and once a week for the males. Furthermore, drinking for intoxication was more frequent among the male than the female students.
Male students have a higher alcohol consumption, drink more frequently, and are more often intoxicated than female students.
To study if an association between total weekly intake of alcohol, type-specific weekly alcohol intake, alcoholic beverage preference, and the number of teeth among older people exists.
A cross-sectional study including a total of 783 community-dwelling men and women aged 65-95 years who were interviewed about alcohol drinking habits and underwent a clinical oral and dental examination. Multiple regression analyses were applied for studying the association between total weekly alcohol consumption, beverage-specific alcohol consumption, beverage preference (defined as the highest intake of one beverage type compared with two other types), and the number of remaining teeth (= 20 versus >20 remaining teeth).
The odds ratio (OR) of having a low number of teeth decreased with the total intake of alcohol in women, with ORs for a low number of teeth of 0.40 [95 percent confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.76] in women drinking 1-14 drinks per week and 0.34 (95 percent CI 0.16-0.74) in women with an intake of more than 14 drinks per week compared with abstainers. Similar relations could also be obtained for type-specific alcohol intake of wine and for wine and spirits preference among women. Men who preferred beer showed a decreased risk for a low number of teeth compared with men with other alcohol preferences.
In this study, alcohol consumption, wine drinking, and wine and spirits preference among women were associated with a higher number of teeth compared with abstainers. Among men, those who preferred beer also had a higher number of teeth.
Illicit sexual relationship and drinking of alcoholic drinks were brought into statistically significant "competitive" relationship in a testing examination of 957 men and women on the basis of the system analysis of the secured findings, which fact has a peculiar effect on both the age of the start of sexual life and the first occurrence of being infected with a venereal disease. Established in the above examination was also the character of correlation between the rate and ways for formation of types of drinking alcoholic drinks and level of education, age, and social status.
Studies have shown that moderate alcohol use confers protection against some of the dominant predictors of long-term care placement, including diminished cognitive functioning, physical disability, and injury. But little is known about the association between alcohol use and the likelihood of placement in long-term care facilities. A nationally representative sample of 5404 community-dwelling Canadians ages 50 years and older at baseline (1994/95) was obtained from the longitudinal National Population Health Survey. Alcohol use categories were developed based on the quantity and frequency of use in the 12 months before the interview. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between alcohol use at baseline and subsequent placement in long-term care facilities after adjusting for covariates measured at baseline. During the 14-year follow-up period, 14% of lifetime abstainers, 10% of former drinkers, 7% of infrequent drinkers, 4% of moderate drinkers, and 3% of heavy drinkers were placed in long-term care facilities. Furthermore, the multivariate analysis revealed that abstainers, former drinkers, and infrequent drinkers were more than twice as likely to be placed in long-term care as moderate drinkers. Moderate drinking was protective against placement in long-term care facilities even after adjusting for an array of well-known confounders. The strong protective effect of moderate alcohol use on long-term care entry is likely due to a complex mix of physical, cognitive and psychosocial health factors.
AIMS: To describe the frequency of alcohol consumption and beverage preferences in eight countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Populations of Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation and Ukraine. PARTICIPANTS: Representative samples of the adult population of each country (overall sample size 18,428; response rates: 71-88%). MEASUREMENTS: A standardised questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers to examine alcohol consumption frequency and usual intakes of beer, wine and strong spirits. FINDINGS: Between 11 and 34% of males and 26-71% of females reported never drinking alcohol. Abstention was lowest in the Russian Federation and Belarus, two traditional spirits-drinking countries. It was particularly high in Kyrgyzstan and Georgia, two countries with a relatively low frequency of alcohol consumption but large amounts consumed per occasion (particularly Georgia). On the contrary, Moldovan respondents drank frequently, but consumed smaller amounts per occasion. As expected, spirits were consumed in largest amounts in traditional spirits-drinking countries, as well as Armenia and wine in traditional wine-drinking countries. Beer consumption was relatively high in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and Kazakhstan (males), particularly in young respondents. CONCLUSIONS: Although cross-country comparisons of alcohol intake should be interpreted cautiously, this study suggested that drinking patterns in the countries examined are not entirely typical of usual dry/wet drinking cultures, and confirms that the CIS is very diverse in terms of drinking patterns and beverage preferences. The study provides an important baseline for future comparisons as markets open to new products, as has been the case elsewhere in Europe.
This paper describes changes in alcohol consumption among Swedish youth over the past decade with the aim of exploring the polarization hypothesis, which asserts that while a majority of young drinkers have reduced their alcohol consumption, a subgroup have increased their drinking substantially, resulting in greater harm.
We analysed repeated cross-sectional self-report data from 45,841 15-16-year olds and 40,889 18-19-year-old high-school students living in the Stockholm municipality between 2000 and 2010. The questionnaire assessed alcohol and drug use, and risk factors for alcohol misuse. Changes over time at different levels of consumption are presented by age and gender.
We find evidence of a polarization effect in youth drinking, with consumption reducing significantly over the past 10 years among all young people, except the heaviest drinkers, where consumption and binge drinking tended to increase. The dispersion in per capita consumption also increased over time, indicating more heavy drinkers. The total number of risk factors for alcohol misuse decreased among most survey participants from 2000 to 2010, but with variability between years.
Polarized drinking habits are a likely explanation for the recent divergence between per capita alcohol consumption, which has decreased, and alcohol-related hospitalizations, which have increased sharply among Swedish youth in recent years. We suggest that ongoing social changes could be affecting young people in the form of greater disparities, which are associated with a higher incidence of social problems generally, including heavy drinking.
The study aimed to determine whether alcohol use during late adolescence contributes to the weight gain from adolescence to young adulthood or risk of obesity or waist circumference at young adulthood.
A population-based, longitudinal study of 5563 Finnish twins born in 1975-1979 and surveyed at ages 16 (T1), 17 (T2), 18 (T3) and 23-27 (T4) years. Drinking habits, height and weight were self-reported at T1, T2, T3 and T4; waist circumference was self-measured at T4. As potential confounders, we used smoking, diet, physical activity, place of residence, socio-economic status and parents' body mass index (BMI).
Compared to the reference group (drinking once to twice per month), the BMI increase from T3 to T4 was less among abstaining men (-0.62 kg/m(2), (95% CI -1.04, -0.20)) and among women in those drinking less than monthly (-0.38 kg/m(2), (-0.71, -0.04)). In women, at least weekly drinking was associated with larger waist circumference (Beta 1.55 cm, (0.48, 2.61)), but this became statistically non-significant after adjusting for potential confounders. In a multilevel model for change, drinking frequency was not associated with weight change in women; in men, a negative association was seen, but it was statistically non-significant after adjusting for potential confounders.
These results from a population-based study with a large set of confounding variables suggest that alcohol use during adolescence has at most a minor effect on weight gain or development of abdominal obesity from adolescence to young adulthood.
Cites: Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2002 Jun;12(3):179-8512135451